Hartmut Fischer received his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Fischer has a number of areas of specialization: international trade, international finance and development economics. He has served as a consultant to the World Bank and the European Union. Research interests include economic problems faced by countries in transition from socialist market economies, country risk analysis, issues of governance, the process of convergence vs. divergence between poor and rich countries, international trade, migration, and capital flows. His current area of special interest is on the economics of environmental problems in the globalization process.