Volume III Number 1, Spring 2003

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Nuclear Nonproliferation: A Hidden but Contentious Issue in US-Japan Relations During the Carter Administration (1977-1981)

Charles S. Costello III

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This paper is a study of specific aspects of the relations between the United States and Japan during the Carter Administration, centering three subjects: [1] Jimmy Carter’s relationship with the Japanese prior to becoming the President of the United States, [2] the Tokai Nuclear facility in Japan and its impact on U.S.-Japan relations during the first year of the administration, and [3] a look at the relation of these issues and nuclear non-proliferation in today’s world.

Making substantial use of over 380 declassified documents obtained from the National Archives and Records Administration and the Jimmy Carter Library, the paper sheds valuable light on the obscure but important conflict over the Tokai nuclear facility which threatened the good relationship between the U.S. and Japan to the extent that then Japanese Prime Minister Fukuda publicly referred to its resolution as a “life and death” issue for Japan.

An Interview with 2002 Kiriyama Chair Rosemary Foot on Human Rights, the United States, and the Asia Pacific

Joaquin L. Gonzalez III

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Rosemary Foot is Professor of International Relations and John Swire Senior Research Fellow in the International Relations of East Asia at St. Antony’s College, Oxford University, and at the time of the interview was Kiriyama Distinguished Visiting Professor at the University of San Francisco Center for the Pacific Rim.

Joaquin L. Gonzalez III is Associate Professor of Public Management at Golden Gate University, Visiting Professor of Politics at the University of San Francisco, a Kiriyama Fellow at the USF Center for the Pacific Rim, and one of the editors of Asia Pacific: Perspectives.

Persistence of Interlocking Institutions: Big Business Policy Under the Kim Dae Jung Government

Jiho Jang

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Based on historical institutionalism, this study argues that there is continuity in institutions, emphasizing the constraints created by existing structures and institutions. This study assesses the Republic of Korea as a case study analyzing big business policy under the Kim Dae Jung government. The result found in this study is that there is no rapid disappearance of institutional pattern of state activism in Korea. This study examining four institutions: 1) state-led ideology; 2) centralized and personalized power of the president; 3) bureaucratic system as a function of policy implementation; and 4) the state-advised financial sector. This study demonstrates that whereas formal institutions collapse or are dismantled, informal institutions such as operating procedures persist to shape the behavior of political actors. Institutional structure is so integrated that it cannot be easily divided into separate parts for the new regime in order to produce different or ‘efficient’ solutions to industrial restructuring.

Shifting Boundaries: The Double Life of Walls in Beijing, 1949-1965

Duanfang Lu

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The essay analyzes the persistence of the “wall” as a building typology in the contemporary Chinese landscape despite state condemnation and through successive political changes. Historically China was a society of walls with Beijing typifying this model. While the city wall used to be the most important symbol of the city, upon the consolidation of socialist control in 1949, however, its utility was called into question. As the new government struggled to create a material reality commensurate with their ethical aims, the city wall was seen to represent the old society and was officially condemned. At the same time it was attacked politically, the city wall was also considered the physical hurdle for urban modernization by the public at large. Yet as the era of the city wall in Chinese culture ended, a new one began. By the mid 1960’s work units were constructing walls to define their extents. Many of them were doing this to protect themselves from the potentially malevolent rural areas and the invasion of state upon their real estate under a vague socialist property right system. Hence the “wall” was resurrected as a functional and symbolic element in a new socialist Chinese landscape. Through an investigation of the transition from the city wall to the unit wall as a progression of symbolic importance from one regime of power to the next, the essay characterizes “tradition” not simply as “handed down” but as constantly deconstructed and constructed in a fast-changing society.

North Korean Realities

James McAdam

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Despite the promise for constructive diplomatic engagement with the North Koreans so prominent only months ago, the political future of the Korean Peninsula today remains as unpredictable as it has been at any time since the end of the Korean War. While the eventual outcome of the current diplomatic stand-off between North Korea and its East Asian neighbors—and the United States—remains in doubt, a successful resolution is undoubtedly of critical importance to the geopolitical stability in East Asia, and to the eventual reunification of the Korean peninsula The most pressing need—a negotiated solution—seems to remain frustratingly beyond the limits of compromise amongst all concerned.

And yet lost amidst the rhetoric of North Korea’s nuclear provocations and repeated defiance of diplomatic accords, is the unimaginable daily struggle for survival facing the North Korean people—victims of chronic food shortages, insufficient medical services and a repressive blanket of political isolation. The need for international assistance to mitigate this growing humanitarian crisis becomes painfully apparent to those foreigners permitted to travel within North Korea. This paper details my own perceptions over the course of nearly two years of commercial engagement with the North Koreans, including three expeditions north of the DMZ.

Asian American Mental Health Issues

Michael Menaster

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Asian Americans issues are becoming more and more relevant particularly given this populations increasing numbers in American society. Issues American Americans must face include the "model minority myth," discrimination, standards of attractiveness and self-esteem, and challenges coping with medical and mental illness. The "model minority" myth affects the demographics of HIV transmission and discussion of safer sex activities within the Asian American community. Asian Americans also tend to seek Eastern Medicine treatments with or without Western Medicine services. Although mental illness is considered a stigma, psychiatric disorders such as major depression may be more prevalent among Asian Americans. Explanations for this higher prevalence are offered. Non Asian Americans may misinterpret health-seeking behaviors adversely, while Asian Americans may misinterpret health care providers' interventions. Asian Americans may also respond to lower dosages of medications yet be more sensitive to medication side effects.

Christian Higher Education: A Case for the Study of the History of Christianity in China

Peter Tze Ming Ng

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Christian Higher Education started in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in China. It began as part of the missionary movements in China, but gradually grown up to be an independent educational enterprise in China. There were already 13 Protestant universities registered with the Chinese government in the 1930s. In this paper, it is suggested that Christian higher education can be taken as a good case for the study of Christianity in China, especially in the analysis of the shift of paradigms in the mission history of China. Four shifts of paradigms were illustrated from the case of Christian higher education in China. Finally, it is concluded that Christian higher education in China could perhaps be another good case to study the interplay between the Western and Chinese cultures, or more precisely an interplay between the Western and Chinese understanding of Christianity and the Christian mission.

Comparing Democratization in the East and the West

Doh Chull Shin and Junhan Lee

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This paper ascertains the differences and similarities of democratic transition and consolidation in Asia and Eastern Europe. To this end, this study focuses on the four important aspects of democratization: the modes of democratic transitions, the institutional choices after the transitions, the magnitudes and patterns of democratic development, and the levels and patterns of popular support for democracy. As a result, we concluded that the modes of democratic transition did not vary across the two regions, whereas there are remarkable differences in institutional choices, democratic progress, and attitudinal orientation toward democracy.

Zebra Crossings: Perspectives on Pedestrian Safety in China

Yu Qingling, Zhang Qiao, Wang Min, and Yan Jun

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Regulations pertaining to pedestrian safety and the enforcement of these regulations in China are far from satisfactory even if they have played an important role in protecting pedestrians in the past. With China’s entry into the World Trade Organization and Beijing’s hosting of the 2008 Olympics, the country can expect more visitors; it is normal that the foreign guests want to be safe when crossing the street. The large peasant population, some 800 million people, also deserve safety as do all citizens of China including the elderly, the disabled, and the very young. The authors, having consulted sources in the US and Japan, offer three suggestions that are based on the general goal of traffic harmony more than on the notion of rights per se. The suggestions to achieve traffic harmony include expanding laws concerning pedestrian safety, providing more facilities, and improving pedestrian and driver awareness.