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Richard A. Leo

Hamill Family Chair Professor of Law and Social Psychology and Dean's Circle Scholar

Richard A. Leo, PhD, JD, is a visiting professor at the University of California, Los Angeles School of Law (2013-2014), professor and Dean’s Circle Research Scholar at the University San Francisco School of Law, and a Fellow in the Institute for Legal Research at the University of California, Berkeley School of Law. He was previously a tenured professor of psychology and criminology at U.C. Irvine for a decade (1997-2006), and a professor of sociology and adjunct professor of law at the University of Colorado, Boulder (1994-1997).

Dr. Leo is nationally and internationally acclaimed for his pioneering empirical research on police interrogation practices, the impact of Miranda, psychological coercion, false confessions, and wrongful convictions. Dr. Leo has authored more 80 articles in leading scientific and legal journals as well as several books, including the multiple award-winning Police Interrogation and American Justice (Harvard University Press, 2008); The Wrong Guys: Murder, False Confessions and the Norfolk Four (The New Press, 2008) with Tom Wells; and, most recently, Confessions of Guilt: From Torture to Miranda and Beyond (Oxford University Press, 2012) with George C. Thomas III. He is currently working on a book that is tentatively entitled, The Innocence Revolution: A Popular History of the American Discovery of the Wrongly Convicted (with Tom Wells).

Dr. Leo has won numerous individual and career achievement awards for research excellence and distinction. These include the William J. Chambliss Lifetime Achievement Award from the Society for the Study of Social Problems, the Saleem Shah Career Achievement Award from the American Psychological Association, the Paul Tappan Award from the Western Society of Criminology and the Ruth Shonle Cavan Young Scholar Award from the American Society of Criminology. Among his many book awards is the prestigious Herbert Jacob Book Prize from the Law and Society Association. Dr. Leo has also received awards from the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, the American Psychology-Law Society, the American Academy of Forensic Psychology, the American Sociological Association, and the Pacific Sociological Association. Dr. Leo has been the recipient of Soros and Guggenheim fellowships, as well as a Fellowship from the Center for the Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University. In 2011 he was elected to the American Law Institute. According to the University of Chicago Leiter rankings, Dr. Leo is one of the most cited criminal law and procedure professors in the United States. His publications have been translated into Chinese, Japanese, and Korean.

Dr. Leo has been featured and/or quoted in hundreds of stories in the national print and electronic media, and his research has been cited by numerous appellate courts, including the United States Supreme Court on multiple occasions. He is regularly invited to lecture and present training sessions to lawyers, judges, police, forensic psychologists and other criminal justice professionals. Dr. Leo is also often called to advise and assist practicing attorneys and has served as a litigation consultant and/or expert witness in hundreds of criminal and civil cases. Dr. Leo has worked on many high profile cases involving false confessions, including the cases of Michael Crowe, Earl Washington, Kerry Max Cook, the Beatrice Six, Jessie Misskelley, Jr. of the West Memphis 3, and two of the Central Park jogger defendants. The work Dr. Leo did to help free four innocent prisoners in Virginia (known as the “Norfolk 4”) was the subject of a story in The New Yorker magazine in 2009 and a PBS Frontline documentary in 2010. Dr. Leo has also worked on behalf of numerous lesser-known victims of coercive interrogation and false confession in cases that never received any media attention.

Education
  • AB, UC Berkeley
  • MA, University of Chicago
  • PhD, UC Berkeley
  • JD, UC Berkeley
Prior Experience
  • Associate Professor of Psychology and Social Behavior, UC Irvine
  • Associate Professor of Criminology, Law, and Society, UC Irvine
  • Assistant Professor of Sociology and Adjunct Professor of Law, University of Colorado, Boulder
  • Soros Senior Justice Fellowship, Open Society Institute
  • Visiting Scholar and Fellow, UC Berkeley Boalt Hall School of Law
Awards
  • Lifetime Achievement Award (2014). Society for the Study of Social Problems, Crime and Juvenile Delinquency Division. (For distinguished scholarship in the fields of crime and delinquency).
  • Crime & Juvenile Delinquency Lifetime Achievement Award (2014) from the Society for the Study of Social Problems.
  • Paul Tappan Award (2014) from the Western Society of Criminology. (For outstanding contributions to the field of criminology)
  • The President’s Award (2014) from the Western Society of Criminology. (For contributions to the field of criminology and positive influence on the current Western Society of Criminology President’s career)
  • William J. Chambliss Lifetime Achievement Award (2013) from the Society for the Study of Social Problems, Law and Society Division. (For career-spanning excellence and achievement in the area of law and society)
  • Guggenheim Fellowship (2011) from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation for The Innocence Revolution co-authored with Tom Wells (in progress)
  • The Edwin H. Sutherland Outstanding Scholarship Award (2010) from the Society for the Study of Social Problems Law and Society Division for Police Interrogation and American Justice (Harvard University Press, 2008) (Inaugural Award)
  • Herbert Jacob Book Prize (2009) from the Law and Society Association for Police Interrogation and American Justice (Harvard University Press, 2008)
  • Outstanding Book Award (2009) from the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences for Police Interrogation and American Justice (Harvard University Press, 2008)
TitleOutletsDate
Prosecution, defense rest in Rauhuff murder retrialThe Daily Times07/16/14
"PA. Court Rulings Differ on Expert Witnesses"Pittsburgh Post-Gazette06/16/14
"Expert on false confessions blames investigators in Beatrice Six lawsuit"
Omaha World-Herald01/11/14
"Philly police to adopt sweeping interrogation reforms come Jan. 1"Philadelphia Daily News12/20/13
"The Interview"The New Yorker12/09/13
"The Interview: Do Police Interrogation Techniques Produce False Confessions?"The New Yorker12/04/13
NorCal Experts Say Juveniles More Likely To Falsely Confess To CrimesCBSNews11/09/13
Gov. Brown Signs Bill to Help Reduce False Confessions by Juveniles Charged with HomicideSenator Lieu News Release10/13/13
"Legislation to Reduce False Confessions Awaits Governor's Signature"Vanguard Court Watch of Yolo County09/17/13
"Videotaping Bill Hopes To Quash Coerced Confessions"San Diego Union-Tribune08/20/13
"The Confessions of Innocent Men"The Atlantic08/06/13
"Questionable Confession: Lacking Fingerprints, DNA, Confession Often Best Evidence"Evansville Courier & Press08/05/13
"Editorial: The Problem With Unrecorded Confessions"Connecticut Law Tribune06/12/13
"Several Murder Confessions Taken by Brooklyn Detective Have Similar Language"The New York Times06/12/13
"Will a Texas Teenager's False Confession Keep Him in Prison for Life?"The Nation04/10/13
"Law Enforcement Officials Question Guilt of Confessor in ’04 Double Murder"The Buffalo News02/24/13
"’80 Murder Confession Raises Calls to Require Police to Record Interrogations"The New York Times12/27/12
"Hundreds of Federal Prisoners Could be Freed"USA Today12/25/12
"False Confessions Taint Many Cases, Temple Law Forum Told"Philadelphia Inquirer11/10/12
"Red Flags: Early Warnings of Wrongful Convictions"Pacific Standard09/06/12
"A Porn Stash and a False Confession: How to Ruin Someone’s Life in the American Justice System"Pacific Standard08/23/12
"Fowler Jury Gets Polygraph Details"Mountain News08/02/12
"Law Professor Testifies at Old Fire Trial About False Confessions"Inland Valley Daily Bulletin, San Bernardino County Sun (CA)07/26/12
"Decision Thursday on Perjury Allegations"San Francisco Chronicle07/14/12
"Witness Discounts Confession to Killing of Newborn"Bend Bulletin05/26/12
"Shelby Trial Closing Set Today: Stepdad's Defense Has Been that Mom Killed Her Daughter"Evansville Courier & Press05/25/12
"Witness Discounts Confession to Ore. Baby Killing"The Columbian05/25/12
"Private Eye Aided Questioning: Admits Lying During Shelby Interrogation"Evansville Courier & Press05/24/12
"Angelica Swartout’s Infanticide Confession Discounted by Expert Witness"The Register-Guard05/24/12
"Shelby Jurors Hear Recording of Phone Call from Jail"Evansville Courier & Press05/23/12
"Expert Says Police Interview with Shelby Created Environment for False Confession"Messenger-Inquirer05/17/12
"Shelby Attorney Seeks Release of Mental Health Records of Victim's Mother"Evansville Courier & Press05/16/12
"Amanda Knox Case and The Norfolk Four Highlight Irreparable Damage Caused By Wrongful Convictions"GroundReport05/08/12
"Amanda Knox Case and The Norfolk Four Highlight Irreparable Damage Caused By Wrongful Convictions"GroundReport05/08/12
"2 Tied to False Confessions Now Instruct Cops on Investigating"Chicago Tribune04/06/12
"New Book by Miranda Expert at Rutgers"News from Rutgers03/29/12
"Reinventing USF"San Francisco Business Times01/20/12
"With Trial Beginning Monday, Experts Question Interrogation of Day Care Worker"Chicago Tribune10/30/11
"Expert: Day Care Death Suspect Has 'Risk Factors' For False Confession"Chicago Daily Herald09/07/11
"Calusinski Attorneys Want Interrogation Expert to Testify"Lake County News-Sun (Chicago Sun-Times Publication)09/07/11
"Judge's Conduct in Beach Hearing Praised by Both Sides"Great Falls Tribune08/05/11
"Breaking the Rules of Interrogation"Hernando Today/The Tampa Tribune07/15/11
"Surprising Discovery in the Charred Rectory"The Philadelphia Inquirer07/11/11
"Atif Rafay, Sebastian Burns Appeal to be Heard 17 Years After Triple Murder in U.S."The Vancouver Sun06/21/11
"No False Confessions? Science Has Found Dozens, Often Wrung From Coerced Young Suspects"Memphis Commercial Appeal, Chicago Sun-Times, Standard-ExaminerDistributed via Scripps Howard News Service05/22/11
"The 2011 Guggenheim Fellows"Jacket Copy (Los Angeles Times blog)04/07/11
"Jailed Six Years as Argument Rages Over Expert Witness"Philadelphia Inquirer03/15/11
"U-M Law Clinic: Records Prove Convicted Killer Mark Craighead is Innocent After All"Detroit Free Press02/02/11
"Will County Lauded for Self-Critical Look into Botched Riley Fox Case"Chicago Tribune01/30/11
"Support and Doubt Greet Gascón Move"San Francisco Chronicle01/11/11
"Murder Verdict Against Ryan Ferguson Relied on Confused Confessor"The Kansas City Star12/04/10
"False Confessions Often an Escape"The Clarion-Ledger (Mississippi)11/14/10
"Interview: Richard Leo"Frontline (PBS)11/09/10
"The Confessions"Frontline (PBS)11/09/10
"Explaining False Confessions"ScienceBlogs10/22/10
"'I Did It': Why do People Confess to Crimes They Didn't Commit?"New York Magazine10/03/10
"Two Alleged False Murder Confessions for Waukegan Police Officer"Chicago Tribune09/25/10
"Prosecutors Drop Case Against Man Wrongly Accused of Bomb Threat"San Francisco Examiner08/26/10
"False Confessions: Fact or Fiction?"Voice America07/22/10
"What Causes People to Give False Confessions? Recent Cases Throw Spotlight on Police Interrogation Techniques"Chicago Tribune07/11/10
"Accusations of Delivering 'Hit List' Leveled Against Former Bey IV Attorney"KTVU Channel 2 News07/02/10
"Expert: Stepfather Falsely Confessed in Rowan Ford Murder"The Joplin Globe06/21/10
"Dispute Over Taped Confession in Rowan Murder Case Still Isn't Resolved"KY306/21/10
"Confession at Issue in Rowan Ford Murder"The Joplin Globe06/20/10
"Shining the Bright Light on Police Interrogation in America"03/30/10
"Livingston County Daily Press"Livingston County Daily Press03/30/10
"Confession at Center of Pretrial Appeal in 2005 Killing"Philadelphia Inquirer03/30/10
"Chambersburg Man Gets 20-40 Years for Killing"Chambersburg Public Opinion03/05/10
"Key Witness Recants in Ryan Ferguson Case"Missourian02/08/10
"Police Coerced Dassey to Confess, Expert Testifies"Herald Times Reporter, The Post-Crescent, Oskhosh Northwestern 01/20/10
"Brendan Dassey's Lead Trial Attorney Mark Fremgen Calls Appleton's Len Kachinsky's Actions 'Odd' and 'Strange'"The Post-Crescent, Green Bay Press-Gazette, Oshkosh Northwestern,Herald Times Reporter01/20/10
"Police Tactics Questioned in Hearing for Brendan Dassey, Convicted of Killing Teresa Halbach"Green Bay Press-Gazette, The Post-Crescent01/19/10
"January Hearings to Decide Whether Brendan Dassey Gets New Trial in Teresa Halbach's Murder"Green Bay Press-Gazette12/28/09
"Police Interrogation and American Justice"San Francisco Chronicle11/20/09
"Stay Granted in Double-Murder Trial"Livingston County Daily Press & Argus10/13/09
"Experts: Lies by Law Enforcement Jeopardize System"Coloradoan10/10/09
"Expert Witness Testifies at Nelson Trial"Siskiyou Daily News10/09/09
"I Was Just a Junkie"The Texas Observer10/02/09
"The Talk of the Town"The New Yorker, Para lá de Bagdade
08/24/09
"Book Review: The Wrong Guys: Murder, False Confessions, and the Norfolk Four"The Champion06/01/09
"Book Reviews: The Wrong Guys Murder, False Confessions, and the Norfolk Four"California Lawyer Magazine05/01/09
"The Wrong Guys"Daily Journal04/01/09
"Shining the Bright Light on Police Interrogation in America"Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law03/20/09
"Yogurt Shop DNA Saga Continues"Newsdesk, The Austin Chronicle03/17/09
"The Wrong Guys Takes On Wrongful Murder Convictions of Norfolk Four"Isthmus | The Daily Page02/18/09
"Leo and Davis on Psychological Processes and False Confessions"Legal Theory Blog01/28/09
"Leo on False Confessions"ESQ BLOG.Me01/26/09
"Leo on False Confessions"Legal Theory Blog01/26/09
"CrimProf Richard Leo Comes Out With New Book"CrimProf Blog01/21/09
"False Confessions Here, There, and Yon"Grits for Breakfast01/19/09
"The Bricks that Build a False Confession"Simple Justice: A New York Criminal Defense Blog01/14/09
"Expert: Yogurt Shop Case a Prime Example of False Confessions"Grits for Breakfast01/13/09
"New Titles In Brief (Book review of The Wrong Guys: Murder, False Confessions, and the Norfolk Four)"American Lawyer01/01/09
"Book Reviews: The Wrong Guys Murder, False Confessions, and the Norfolk Four"California Lawyer01/01/09
"OPD Homicide Detectives Focus on Interrogation, Sometimes at Expense of Other Investigation"The Chauncey Bailey Project, Contra Costa Times 12/28/08
"Clemency Campaign Renews Misery"Washington Post12/15/08
"Death-Row Inmate Eric Simmons of Lake Poorly Served by Defense, Appellate Lawyers Say"Orlando Sentinel12/11/08
"Psychologist Had Dual Role in Confessions of Beatrice 6"Omaha World Herald, Can You Measure Justice, Innocence Project of Florida, Inc.11/29/08
Omaha World-Herald, Can You Measure Justice (blog)11/20/08
"They Did It-- Or Did They"The Virginian Pilot11/16/08
"Co-Author of Book on 'Norfolk Four' Case to Discuss Work"The Virginian Pilot11/12/08
"Sheriff slashes $700 bill for public records"The State Journal-Register11/11/08
"Chauncey Bailey Update"KQED's Forum 10/28/08
"Chauncey Bailey Murder Investigation"AM810 KGO Radio Bay Area News10/27/08
"Evidence Ignored in Chauncey Bailey Case"The Oakland Tribune, Alameda Times-Star, San Mateo County Times, et al.10/26/08
"Experts Criticize Investigation"The Chauncey Bailey Project10/25/08
"News Investigation: Ex-head of Your Black Muslim Bakery Played Larger Role in Journalist's Slaying"San Jose Mercury News 10/25/08
"Nonfiction Reviews - 9/22/08"Publishers Weekly09/22/08
"Book Review: Police Interrogation and American Justice"The Champion09/01/08
"Lawyers grill defense team for Ferguson: Killer wants new trial in editor's slaying"Columbia Daily Tribune07/18/08
"Lawyers grill defense team for Ferguson: Killer wants new trial in editor's slaying"Columbia Daily Tribune07/18/08
"False confession expert testifies in Ray Ferguson hearing"Columbian Missourian07/18/08
"False Confession Expert Testifies in Ray Ferguson Hearing"Columbian Missourian07/18/08
"Confession allowed in Innocence Project case"Baltimore Examiner, Washington Examiner07/16/08
"Expert says Vent deserves a new trial"Fairbanks Daily News-Miner07/10/08
"Vent's defense attorney in Hartman case blasted during Anchorage hearing"Fairbanks Daily News-Miner07/09/08
"Vent's defense attorney in Hartman case blasted during Anchorage hearing"Fairbanks Daily News-Miner07/09/08
"Case solved through confessions"Fairbanks Daily News-Miner07/09/08
"APD, DA Must Answer Some Hard Questions"Albuquerque Journal07/02/08
"Police Interrogation: Is it Okay to Lie?"Patt Morrison (on 89.33 KPCC Southern California Public Radio)07/02/08
"Slaying Suspect Freed"Albuquerque Journal 06/28/08
"Man found not guilty to arranging girlfriend's death"Press-Enterprise online and print newspapers06/24/08
"Man found not guilty to arranging girlfriend's death"Press-Enterprise online and print newspapers06/24/08
"My Brother Got Burned"Seattle Weekly05/28/08
"Guilty pleas under pressure: California's compensation debate"Fault Lines04/15/08
"Going by the book: how police obtain confessions"Fault Lines04/15/08
"Anything You Say"Style Weekly04/09/08
"The Killing at Poplar River"Dateline, NBC04/04/08
Books
  • Confessions of Guilt: From Torture to Miranda and Beyond (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012). (Co-authored with George C. Thomas III.)
  • Police Interrogation and American Justice (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 12th Edition 2008). (Paperback version published in 2009. Excerpts reprinted in Yale Kamisar, et al. Modern Criminal Procedure: Cases, Comments, Questions. Translated into Chinese in September 2012.) Read More
  • The Wrong Guys: Murder, False Confessions and the Norfolk Four (New York: The New Press, 2008). (Co-authored with Tom Wells.) Read More
  • The Miranda Debate: Law, Justice and Policing (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1998). (Co-edited with George C. Thomas III.) Read More
  • The American Criminal Justice System (Simon & Schuster, 1998). (Editor)
Law Review and Journal Articles
  • "Police Interrogation and Coercion in Domestic American History: Lessons for the War on Terror,"  Torture, Law and War: What Are the Moral and Legal Boundaries on the Use of Coercion in Interrogation? (forthcoming). SSRN
  • "The Problem of Interrogation-Induced False Confession: Sources of Failure in Prevention and Detection," Handbook of Forensic Sociology and Psychology 47-75 (2014).
  • "Promoting Accuracy in the Use of Confession Evidence: An Argument for Pre-Trial Reliability Assessments to Prevent Wrongful Convictions," 85 Temple Law Review 759-838 (2014). SSRN
  • "The Sound of Silence: Miranda Waivers, Selective Literalism and Social Context," Lawrence Solan, Janet Ainsworth, & Roger Shuy, eds., Speaking of Language and Law (2014). SSRN
  • "Predicting Erroneous Convictions," 99 Iowa Law Review p. 471-552 (2014). (Co-authored with Jon Gould, Julia Carrano and Katie Hail-Jares.) SSRN
  • "Why Interrogation Contamination Occurs," 11 Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law (2013). SSRN
  • "Promoting Accuracy in the Use of Confession Evidence: An Argument for Pretrial Reliability Assessments to Prevent Wrongful Convictions," Temple Law Review (2013). (Co-authored with Peter J. Neufeld, Steven A. Drizin, and Andrew E. Taslitz.) SSRN
  • "Interrogation-Regulatory Decline: Ego Depletion, Failures of Self-Regulation and the Decision to Confess," 18 Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 673 (2012). (Co-authored with Deborah Davis.) SSRN
  • "To Walk in Their Shoes: The Problem of Missing, Misunderstood, and Misrepresented Context in Judging Criminal Confessions," 46 New England Law Review 4 (2012). (Co-authored with Deborah Davis.) SSRN
  • "Jurors Believe Interrogation Tactics Are Not Likely To Elicit False Confessions: Will Expert Witness Testimony Inform Them Otherwise?" 17 Psychology, Crime & Law 239 (2011). (Co-authored with Iris Blandon-Gitlin & Kathryn Sperry.) SSRN
  • "Reply to Samuel R. Gross and Barbara O'Brien," 8 Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 277-279 (2010). SSRN
  • "Moving Targets: Placing the Good Faith Doctrine in the Context of Fragmented Policing," 37 Fordham Urban Law Journal 709 (2010). (Co-authored with Hadar Aviram and Jeremy Seymour.) SSRN
  • "From False Confession to Wrongful Conviction: Seven Psychological Processes," 38 Journal of Psychiatry and Law 9 (2010). (The article was excerpted in Open Access Journal of Forensic Psychology and co-authored with Deborah Davis.) SSRN
  • "Overcoming Judicial Preferences for Person Versus Situation-Based Analyses of Interrogation Induced Confessions," 38(2) The Journal of American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 187 (2010). (Co-authored with Deborah Davis.) SSRN
  • "Police-Induced Confessions, Risk Factors, and Recommendations: Looking Ahead," 34 Law and Human Behavior 39 (2010). (The article was also written with Saul Kassin, Steven Drizin, Thomas Grisso, Gisli Gudjonsson, and Allison Redlich and published online in January 2010.) SSRN
  • "Selling Confession: Setting the Stage with the Sympathetic Detective with a Time-Limited Offer," 26 Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 441 (2010). (Co-authored with Deborah Davis and William Follette.) SSRN
  • "One Hundred Years Later: Wrongful Conviction After a Century of Research," 100(3) Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 825 (2010). (Co-authored with Jon Gould.) SSRN
  • "The Gatehouse and Mansions: 50 Years Later," 6 Annual Review of Law and Social Science 323 (2010). (Co-authored with Alexa Koenig.) SSRN
  • "Studying Wrongful Convictions: Learning from Social Science," 7 The Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 7 (2009). (Co-authored with Jon Gould.) SSRN
  • "Police-Induced Confessions: Risk Factors and Recommendations," 34 Law and Human Behavior 3 (2010). (Co-authored with Saul Kassin, Steven Drizin, Thomas Grisso, Gisli Gudjonsson, and Allison Redlich. Published online July 2009.) SSRN
  • "False Confessions: Causes, Consequences and Implications," 37 The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 332 (2009). SSRN
  • "What Do Potential Jurors Know About Police Interrogation Techniques and False Confessions?" 27 Behavioral Sciences and the Law 381 (2009). (Co-authored with Brittany Liu.) SSRN
  • "Mental Health Status and Vulnerability to Police Interrogation Tactics," 22 Criminal Justice 42 (2007). (Co-authored with William C. Follette and Deborah Davis.)
  • "Police Interviewing and Interrogation: A Self-Report Survey of Police Practices and Beliefs," 31 Law and Human Behavior 381 (2007). (Co-authored with Saul M. Kassin, Christian A. Meissner, Kimberly D. Richman, Lori H. Colwell, Amy Leach, & Dana LaFon.) SSRN
  • "Mandate the Electronic Recording of Police Interrogations," 6 Crime and Public Policy 791 (2007). (With Kimberly D. Richman) SSRN
  • "Bringing Reliability Back In: False Confessions and Legal Safeguards in the 21st Century," 2006 Wisconsin Law Review 479 (2006). (Co-authored with Steven Drizin, Peter Neufeld, Brad Hall, and Amy Vatner.) SSRN
  • "Psychological Weapons of Influence: Applications in the Interrogation Room," 14 Nevada Lawyer 14 (2006). (With Deborah Davis)
  • "Re-Thinking the Study of Miscarriages of Justice: Developing a Criminology of Wrongful Conviction," 21 Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 205 (2005). SSRN
  • "Beating a Bum Rap," 3 Contexts 68 (2004). SSRN
  • "The Problem of False Confessions in the Post-DNA World," 82 North Carolina Law Review 891 (2004). (The article was written with Steve Drizin. It was reprinted in Japan as the book The Problem of False Confessions in the Post-DNA World (Nippon Hyoronsha Co., Ltd., 2008). It was also reprinted in Modern Criminal Procedure: Cases, Comments, Questions (West Publishing, 2008) and Constitutional Criminal Procedure (Foundation Press, Third Edition 2007) SSRN
  • "The Effects of Miranda v. Arizona: Embedded in Our National Culture?" 29 Crime and Justice: A Review of Research (2002). (Co-authored with George C. Thomas III.) SSRN
  • "Questioning the Relevance of Miranda in the Twenty-First Century," 99 Michigan Law Review 1000 (2001). (The article was reprinted in Modern Criminal Procedure: Cases, Comments, Questions (West Publishing, Ninth Edition 2002) SSRN
  • "The Truth About False Confessions and Advocacy Scholarship," 37 Criminal Law Bulletin 293 (2001). (With Richard Ofshe) SSRN
  • "Autism, Rape, and Arson," 4 Sexual Assault Report 17 (2000). (Co-authored with Ann Burgess, David Elkovitch, and Jay Jackman.)
  • "Adapting to Miranda: Modern Interrogators' Strategies For Dealing With The Obstacles Posed By Miranda," 84 Minnesota Law Review 397 (1999). (Co-authored with Welsh S. White.) SSRN
  • "Witness for False Confession No Expert," II(3) The Forensic Echo: The Monthly Newsmagazine of Psychiatry, Law & Public Policy 14 (1998).
  • "Civil Rights and Civil Liberties: Videotaping the Police," 17 Criminal Justice Ethics 44 (1998).
  • "The Consequences of False Confessions: Deprivations of Liberty and Miscarriages of Justice in the Age of Psychological Interrogation," 88 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 429 (1998). (The article was co-authored with Richard Ofshe and reprinted in Law, Social Science, and the Criminal Courts (Carolina Academic Press, 2004) SSRN
  • "False Confessions and Miscarriages of Justice," The Defender 3 (1998).
  • "Using the Innocent to Scapegoat Miranda: Another Reply to Paul Cassell," 88 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 557 (1998). (Co-authored with Richard Ofshe.) SSRN
  • "The Decision to Confess Falsely: Rational Choice and Irrational Action," 74 Denver University Law Review 979 (1997). (Co-authored with Richard Ofshe.) SSRN
  • "Missing the Forest for the Trees: A Response to Paul Cassell's 'Balanced Approach' to the False Confession Problem," 74 Denver University Law Review 1135 (1997). (Co-authored with Richard Ofshe.) SSRN
  • "The Social and Legal Construction of Repressed Memory," 22 Law & Social Inquiry 653 (1997). SSRN
  • "The Social Psychology of Police Interrogation: The Theory and Classification of True and False Confessions," 16 Studies in Law, Politics & Society 189 (1997). (Co-authored with Richard Ofshe.) SSRN
  • "The Ethics of Deceptive Research Roles Reconsidered: A Reply to Kai Erikson," 27 American Sociologist 122 (1996).
  • "The Impact of Miranda Revisited," 86 Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 621 (1996). (Reprinted in The Miranda Debate: Law, Justice, and Crime Control (Northeastern University Press, 1998) SSRN
  • "Inside the Interrogation Room," 86 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 266 (1996). (The article was reprinted in Police and Policing Law (Ashgate Publishing, 2006) and Cases and Materials on Criminal Procedure (West Publishing, 1999.) SSRN
  • "Miranda's Revenge: Police Interrogation as a Confidence Game," 30 Law & Society Review 259 (1996). SSRN
  • "Police Scholarship for the Future: Resisting the Pull of the Policy Audience," 30 Law & Society 865 (1996). SSRN
  • "Trial and Tribulations: Courts, Ethnography, and the Need for an Evidentiary Privilege for Academic Researchers," 26 American Sociologist 113 (1995). (The article was reprinted in Contemporary Field Research: Perspectives and Formulations (Waveland Press, Second Edition 2001.)
  • "Police Interrogation and Social Control," 3 Social and Legal Studies: An International Journal 93 (1994). SSRN
  • "The Yale White-Collar Crime Project: A Review and Critique," 18 Law & Social Inquiry 63 (1993). (The article was co-authored with David T. Johnson and reprinted Fraud: Organizational, Motivation, and Control (Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 1998.) SSRN
  • "From Coercion to Deception: The Changing Nature of Police Interrogation in America," 18 Crime, Law, and Social Change: An International Journal 35 (1992). (The article was reprinted in The Miranda Debate: Law, Justice, and Crime Control. (Northeastern University Press, 1998) SSRN
  • "The Ethics of Deceptive Interrogation," 11 Criminal Justice Ethics 3 (1992). (The article was co-authored with Jerome H. Skolnick. It was reprinted in Justice, Crime, and Ethics (Anderson Publishing Co., Fifth Edition 2005); Criminal Justice Ethics (Prentice-Hall, 2000); The Leadership Journal (January-March 1993); and The Boalt Hall Transcript (1993). It was also revised and expanded as a book chapter in Issues in Policing: New Perspectives. (Autumn House Publishing, 1992) SSRN
Book Contributions
  • "The Sound of Silence: Miranda Waivers, Selective Literalism and Social Context," in Speaking of Language and Law  (New York: Oxford University Press, June 2014). SSRN
  • "Honest False Testimony ," in Wrongful Allegations of Person Abuse  (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014).
  • "Interrogation and Confessions," in The Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Vol. III , 1199-1206 (New York, N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons, 2014). (Co-authored with Deborah Davis.) SSRN
  • "Disputed Interrogation Techniques in America: True and False Confessions and the Estimation and Valuation of Type I and II Errors," in Controversies in Innocence Cases in America , 57-72 (Ashgate Publishing, 2014). (Reprinted in Joshua Davis, Legal Scholarship Network.) SSRN
  • "Honest False Testimony," in Wrongful Allegations of Person Abuse  (New York: Oxford University Press, forthcoming). (Co-authored with Guillermo Villalobos and Deborah Davis)
  • "Police Interrogation and Coercion in Domestic American History: Lessons for the War on Terror," in Torture, Law and War: What Are the Moral and Legal Boundaries on the Use of Coercion in Interrogation?  (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, forthcoming). (Co-authored with Alexa Koenig)
  • "Innocent Defendants: Divergent Case Outcomes and What They Teach Us," in Wrongful Conviction and Criminal Justice Reform: Making Justice edited by Marvin Zalman and Julia Carrano (London: Routledge, 2013). (Co-authored with Jon Gould, Julia Carrano, and Katie Hail-Jares.)
  • "The Problem of Interrogation-Induced False Confession: Sources of Failure in Prevention and Detection," in Handbook of Forensic Sociology and Psychology edited by Stephen Morewitz and Mark Goldstein, Pp. 47-75 (New York: Springer, 2014). (Co-authored with Deborah Davis.)
  • "False Confessions and the Constitution: Problems, Possibilities and Solutions," in The Constitution in 2020: The Future of Criminal Justice in America edited by John T. Parry & L. Song Richardson (Cambridge University Press, forthcoming). SSRN
  • "Interrogation-Induced False Confession," in Encyclopedia of Criminology & Criminal Justice edited by Jay Albanese (Wiley-Blackwell, forthcoming). (Co-authored with Deborah Davis.) SSRN
  • "Law of Police Interrogation," in Encyclopedia of Criminology & Criminal Justice edited by Jay Albanese (Wiley-Blackwell, forthcoming). (Co-authored with George Thomas III.) SSRN
  • "Police Interrogation and Coercion in Domestic American History: Lessons for the War on Terror," in Torture, Law, and War: What Are the Moral and Legal Boundaries of the Use of Coercion in Interrogation? edited by Martha Nussbaum and Scott Anderson (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, forthcoming). (Co-authored with Alexa Koenig.) SSRN
  • "The Problem of Interrogation-Induced False Confession: Sources of Failure in Prevention and Detection," in The Handbook of Forensic Sociology and Psychology edited by Stephen Morewitz and Mark Goldstein (forthcoming). (Co-authored with Deborah Davis.) SSRN
  • "Acute Suggestibility in Police Interrogation: Self-Regulation Failure as a Primary Mechanism of Vulnerability," in Investigative Suggestibility: Theory, Research, and Applications edited by Anne Ridley (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2012). (Co-authored with Deborah Davis.) SSRN
  • "Interrogation Through Pragmatic Implication: Sticking to the Letter of the Law While Violating its Intent," in Oxford Handbook on Language and Law edited by Lawrence Solan and Peter Tiersma (Oxford University Press, 2012). (Co-authored with Deborah Davis.) SSRN
  • "Three Prongs of the Confession Problem: Issues and Proposed Solutions," in The Future of Evidence: How Science and Technology will Change the Practice of Law edited by Jules Epstein, 231-262 (American Bar Association Books, 2011). (Co-authored with Deborah Davis.) SSRN
  • "Police Interrogation and False Confessions," in Modern Scientific Evidence: The Law and Science of Expert Testimony edited by David Faigman, Michael Saks, Joseph Sanders, and Edward Cheng (forthcoming).
  • "The Three Errors: Pathways to False Confession and Wrongful Conviction," in Interrogations and Confessions: Current Research, Practice, and Policy edited by Daniel Lassiter and Christian Meissner (American Psychological Association, 2010). (Co-authored with Steve Drizin.) SSRN
  • "Disputed Interrogation Techniques in America: True and False Confessions and the Estimation and Valuation of Type I and II Errors," in Controversies in Innocence Cases in America , 57-72 (Surrey, England: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., May 2014). (Co-authored with Deborah Davis) SSRN
  • "Interrogation," in The Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science edited by A. Jamieson and A. Moenssens (London: John Wiley & Sons, 2009). (Co-authored with Mark Costanzo.) SSRN
  • "Psychological and Cultural Aspects of Interrogations and False Confessions: Using Research to Inform Legal Decision-Making," in Pyschological Expertise in Court edited by Joel Lieberman and Daniel Krauss (New York: Ashgate Ltd., 2009). (Co-authored with Mark Costanzo and Netta Shaked-Schroer.) SSRN
  • "Police Interrogation and False Confessions in Rape Cases," in Practical Rape Investigation: A Multidisciplinary Approach edited by Roy Hazelwood and Ann Burgess (Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, Fourth Edition 2008).
  • "Research and Expert Testimony on Interrogation and Confessions," in Expert Psychological Testimony For The Courts edited by Mark Costanzo, Dan Krauss, and Kathy Pezdek (New Jersey: Erlbaum, 2007). SSRN
  • "Strategies for Preventing False Confessions and Their Consequences," in Practical Psychology for Forensic Investigations and Prosecutions edited by Martin Kebbell and Graham Davies (New York, N.Y.: Wiley, 2006). SSRN
  • "Interrogating Guilty Suspects: Why Sipowicz Never Has to Admit He is Wrong," in What Would Sipowicz Do?: Race, Rights and Redemption edited by Glenn Yeffeth (Dallas: BenBella Books, 2005). (With George C. Thomas III) SSRN
  • "Interrogation and Confessions," in The Encyclopedia of Criminology edited by J. Miller Mitchell and Richard A. Wright (New York, N.Y.: Routledge, 2005).
  • "The Third Degree and the Origins of Psychological Interrogation in America," in Interrogations, Confessions and Entrapment edited by Daniel Lassiter (New York, N.Y.: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2004). (Perspectives in Law and Psychology Series, Volume 20) SSRN
  • "Interrogation," in The Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment edited by David Levinson (Great Barrington, Mass.: Berkshire Reference Works, 2002).
  • "Miranda, Confessions and Justice: Lessons for Japan?" edited by Malcolm Feeley and Setsuo Miyazawa (London, U.K.: Palgrave, 2002). SSRN
  • "False Confessions: Causes, Consequences, and Solutions," in Wrongly Convicted: Perspectives on Failed Justice edited by Saundra D. Westervelt and John A. Humphrey (Newark, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2001).
  • "The Criminal Justice System: An Overview," in The American Criminal Justice System edited by Richard A. Leo (Simon & Schuster, 1998).
  • "False Confessions and Miscarriages of Justice Today," in The American Criminal Justice System edited by Richard A. Leo (Simon & Schuster, 1998).
  • "A Historical Overview of Confession Law," in The American Criminal Justice System edited by Richard A. Leo (Simon & Schuster, 1998).
  • "Miranda and the Problem of False Confessions," in The Miranda Debate: Law, Justice and Policing edited by Richard A. Leo and George C. Thomas (Boston, Mass.: Northeastern University Press, 1998).
  • "Some Thoughts about Police and Crime," in The Crime Conundrum: Essays on Criminal Justice edited by Lawrence Friedman and George Fisher (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1997).
  • "Disputed Interrogation Techniques in America: True and False Confessions and the Estimation and Valuation of Type I and II Errors," in Controversies in Innocence Cases in America  (Ashgate Publishing Ltd, Surrey, England Edition forthcoming). (with Deborah Davis)
  • "The Law of Interrogation," in Encyclopedia of Criminology & Criminal Justice  (New York, N.Y.: Springer, forthcoming). (with George C. Thomas III)
  • "Police Interrogation and Coercion in Domestic American History: Lessons for the War on Terror," in Torture, Law and War: What Are the Moral and Legal Boundaries on the Use of Coercion in Interrogation?  (Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, forthcoming). (with Alexa Koenig)
Opinion Pieces and Blog Posts
Other Publications
    Briefs
    • U.S. Supreme Court, State of Florida v. Kevin DeWayne Powell (2009) (No. 08-1175).
    Court Citation of Research
    • Nebraska Court of Appeals, Dean v. State 2014) (No. 288 Neb. 530).
    • Supreme Court of Georgia, Woodall v. State 2014) (No. 754 S.E.2d 335).
    • Massachusetts Supreme Court, Commonwealth v. Hoose (2014) (No. 5 N.E.3d 843).
    • U.S. 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals, Poventud v. City of New York (2014).
    • Tennessee Supreme Court, State v. Bishop (2014) (No. W2010-01207-SC-R11-CD).
    • Nebraska Supreme Court, Nebraska Supreme Court (2014) (No. 844 N.W.2d 791 ).
    • U.S. District Court for the 9th Circuit, United States v. Preston (2014) (No. 11-10511).
    • California Court of Appeals, People v. Whatley (2014) (No. G049642, 2014 WL 1499553).
    • California Court of Appeals, People v. Carino (2014) (No. No. B244423, 2014 WL 1256072).
    • United States Supreme Court, J.D.B. v. North Carolina, WL 2369508 2011) (No. 09-11121).
    • U.S. Supreme Court, Maryland v. Shatzer, 559 U.S. 2010).
    • U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit, Michael Crowe et al. v. County of San Diego et al., U.S. App. 2074 2010).
    • Washington Supreme Court, State of Washington v. A.N.J., 2010 Wash 69 2010).
    • U.S. Supreme Court, Corley v. United States, 129 S.Ct 1558 2009).
    • U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts, Wade v. Brady, 612 F. Supp 2d 90 2009).
    • Washington Supreme Court, State of Washington v. Riofta, 209 P.3d 467 2009).
    • Wisconsin Court of Appeals, State of Wisconsin v. Fairconatue, Wisc. App. 491 2009).
    • U.S. Supreme Court, Missouri v. Seibert, 124 S. Ct. 2601 2004).
    Presentations
    • Presenter, "Litigating False Confession Cases," Cardozo Law School, New York, N.Y. (June 2014).
    • Presenter, "Presenting Expert Testimony," Cardozo Law School, New York, N.Y. (June 2014).
    • Presenter, "The Problem of Wrongful Conviction," University of California, Irvine,The Newkirk Center for Science and Society, The Center for Law, Society and Culture, and The Center for Psychology and Law, Irvine, Calif. (April 2014).
    • Presenter, "False Confessions, Erroneous Convictions and Safeguarding the Innocent," "The Rand Corporation," Santa Monica, Calif. (May 2014).
    • Presenter, "False Confession and Wrongful Conviction: Causes, Consequences, and Solutions," Susquehanna University.  Arlin M. Adams Center For Law and Society Distinguished Lecture,  Selinsgrove, PA (April 2014).
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation and Coerced and False Confessions," Los Angeles Public Defender’s Office. Van Nuys and Downtown Offices, Los Angeles, Calif. (April 2014).
    • Presenter, "The Justice Gap and the Promise of Criminological Research," "Western Society of Criminology," Honolulu, HA (February 2014).
    • Presenter, "Why Interrogation Contamination Occurs," Association of American Law Schools Mid-Year Meeting, "Conference on Criminal Justice," San Diego, Calif. (June 2013).
    • Presenter, "Social Psychological Testimony Regarding Interrogations and Confessions," American Psychology - Law Society Annual Conference, Portland, Ore. (March 2013).
    • Presenter, "To Walk in Their Shoes: The Problem of Recognizing False Confessions," American Psychology - Law Society Annual Conference, Portland, Ore. (March 2013). (Co-presented with Deborah Davis.)
    • Presenter, "False Confessions," California Attorneys for Criminal Justice/California Public Defenders Association, "Capital Defense Seminar," Monterey, Calif. (February 2013).
    • Presenter, "Contamination Confessions," Duke University School of Law, "Accuracy and Error in Decision-Making in the Criminal Justice Process," Durham, N.C. (December 2012).
    • Presenter, "False Confessions: Causes, Consequences, Solutions," Roosevelt University, "2012 Second Annual Wrongful Convictions Distinguished Speakers Series," Chicago, Ill. (November 2012).
    • Presenter, "Innocent Differences? An Empirical Study of Wrongful Convictions vs. 'Near Misses'," American Constitution of Criminology, "2012 Annual Meeting," Chicago, Ill. (November 2012). (Co-presented with Jon Gould and Julia Carrano.)
    • Presenter, "Life After Death Row," American Constitution of Criminology, "2012 Annual Meeting," Chicago, Ill. (November 2012).
    • Presenter, "Promoting Accuracy in the Use of Confession Evidence: An Argument for Pre-Trial Reliability Hearings to Prevent Wrongful Convictions," The Temple Law Review, "False Confessions: Intersecting Science, Ethics, and the Law," Philadelphia, Pa. (November 2012).
    • Presenter, "Promoting Accuracy in the Use of Confession Evidence: An Argument for Pre-Trial Reliability Hearings to Prevent Wrongful Convictions," American University Washington College of Law, Washington, D.C. (September 2012).
    • Presenter, "An Early Peek at the Results: An Empirical Study of Wrongful Convictions Versus 'Near Misses'," 2012 International Conference on Law and Society, Honolulu, Hawaii (June 2012). (Co-presented with Jon Gould and Julia Carrano.)
    • Presenter, "Interrogation Through Pragmatic Implication: Sticking to the Letter of the Law While Violating Its Intent," Loyola Law School, Los Angeles, Calif. (April 2012).
    • Presenter, "The Problem of Interrogation-Induced False Confession: Sources of Failure in Prevention and Detection," Western Psychological Association 2012 Convention, Burlingame, Calif. (April 2012).
    • Presenter, "The Science of False Confessions," Washington State Courts Continuing Judicial Education Conference, Cle Elum, Wash. (April 2012).
    • Presenter, "Interviewing Suspects: Two Real-Life Studies, A Meta-Analysis, and the Effects of Unanticipated Questions," American Psychology-Law Society 2012 Annual Conference, San Juan, Puerto Rico (March 2012).
    • Presenter, "False Confessions: Understanding and Litigating the Issues," New Mexico Criminal Defense Lawyers Association Program, "Advanced Program on Eyewitness ID, Client Statements & False Confessions," Albuquerque, N.M. (March 2012).
    • Presenter, "False Confessions," California Attorney for Criminal Justice and California Public Defenders Association Event, "Capital Case Defense Seminar 2012," Monterey, Calif. (February 2012).
    • Presenter, "The Dynamics of False Confessions," Texas Bar Association Continuing Legal Education, Dallas, Texas (December 2011).
    • Presenter, "Studying Wrongful Convictions: Learning From Social Science," American Criminal Society 2011 Annual Meeting "Breaking the Mold: Innovations and Bold Ventures in Criminology," Washington, D.C. (November 2011).
    • Presenter, "False Confessions: Why Innocent People Confess," Northern California Innocence Project's "Innocence Matters Breakfast Briefings," Santa Clara, Calif. (October 2011).
    • Presenter, "The Problem of Interrogation-Induced False Confession: Sources of Failure in Prevention and Detection," Federal Public Defender, Capital Habeas Unit, Los Angeles, Calif. (August 2011).
    • Presenter, "The Science of False Confessions," Texas Criminal Defense Lawyers Association "'Innocence Work' in the Real World for Real Lawyers," Austin, Texas (August 2011).
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation Methods and False Confessions," New York State Justice Task Force on Wrongful Convictions, New York, N.Y. (June 2011).
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation: Tactics, Responses and Outcomes," University of Minnesota Law School "Police Interrogation of Juveniles," Minneapolis, Minn. (May 2011).
    • Presenter, "False Confessions: Causes, Consequences, Solutions," University of Cincinnati "2011 Innocence Network Conference: An International Exploration of Wrongful Conviction," Cincinnati, Ohio (April 2011).
    • Presenter, "The Truth About False Confessions: Ego-depletion, Failures of Self-Regulation and the Decision to Confess," Western Psychological Association 2011 Convention, Los Angeles, Calif. (April 2011).
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation in the Shadow of Trial," Third Hoffinger Criminal Justice Forum, New York University School of Law, New York, N.Y. (March 2011). (Link here)
    • Presenter, "Confessions of the Innocent: Causes, Consequences, Solutions," 36th Annual Conference of the Forensic Mental Health Association of California, Seaside, Calif. (March 2011). (Keynote Address)
    • Presenter, "Three Prongs of the Confession Problem: Issues and Proposed Solutions," University of Washington School of Law Faculty Colloquium, Seattle, Wash. (January 2011).
    • Presenter, "Purpose-Driven Scholarship, Justice Work, and the Problem of Wrongful Conviction," University of San Francisco School of Law Justice Forum, (November 2010).
    • Presenter, "Innocent: Recent Advances in Uncovering Wrongful Convictions," Stanford University Law School "Shaking the Foundations: The West Coast Conference on Progressive Lawyering," Palo Alto, Calif. (October 2010).
    • Presenter, "Miranda at 50: What Have We Learned?" Seattle University School of Law Faculty Colloquium, Seattle, Wash. (September 2010).
    • Presenter, "A Doctrinal Analysis of Miranda v. Arizona and its Progeny: Why the Conventional Explanation is Wrong and What's Really Going On," University of San Francisco School of Law Faculty Colloquium, (April 2010).
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation, Psychological Coercion, and False Confessions: Understanding and Litigating the Issues," Los Angeles County Bar Association, Los Angeles, Calif. (April 2010).
    • Presenter, "When Lightning Strikes Twice: Analyzing Double Wrongful Convictions," UC Berkeley School of Law Center for the Study of Law and Society Faculty Colloquium, Berkeley, Calif. (March 2008).
    • Presenter, "Litigating Coerced and False Confessions Cases," Department of the Army, U.S. Trial Defense Service Conference, Ft. Lewis, Wash. (March 2010).
    • Presenter, "The Psychology of Coerced and False Confessions," Department of the Army, U.S. Trial Defense Service Conference, Ft. Lewis, Wash. (March 2010).
    • Presenter, "Stage Setting in Police Interrogation: Interactive Effects of a Pretext for Interrogation and Minimization," American Psychology-Law Society Conference, Vancouver, Canada (March 2010). (Co-presented with Osvaldo Hernandez, Deborah Davis, Crissa Draper, and William Follette.)
    • Presenter, "Interrogation, Coercion, and False Confessions: Understanding and Identifying the Issues," California Attorneys for Criminal Justice and California Public Defenders Association Case Capital Defense Seminar Program, Monterey, Calif. (February 2010).
    • Presenter, "When Lightning Strikes Twice: Analyzing Double Wrongful Convictions," Emory University School of Law Faculty Colloquium, Atlanta, Ga. (February 2010).
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation and False Confessions: A Review of the Research," Association of American Law Schools Annual Conference, New Orleans, La. (January 2010).
    • Presenter, "Interrogation Through Pragmatic Implication: Communicating Beneficence and Promises of Leniency," Society for Personality and Social Psychology Conference, Las Vegas, Nev. (January 2010).
    • Presenter, "One Hundred Years of Getting it Wrong? Wrongful Convictions After a Century of Research," Northwestern University School of Law Conference on a Century of Criminal Justice, Chicago, Ill. (January 2010). (Co-presented with Jon Gould.)
    • Presenter, "When Lightning Strikes Twice: Studying Double Wrongful Convictions," American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting "Criminology and Criminal Justice Policy," Philadelphia, Pa. (November 2009).
    • Panelist, "The Wrong Guys: Authors Meet Critics," American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting "Criminology and Criminal Justice," Philadelphia, Pa. (November 2009).
    • Presenter, "False Confessions: Science and Research," Office of the State Appellate Defender and Illinois Institute for Continuing Legal Education Conference "Defending Illinois Death Penalty Cases," Springfield, Ill. (October 2009). (Leo delivered the keynote address.)
    • Presenter, "Police-Induced Confessions: Risk Factors and Recommendations," UC Hastings College of the Law Faculty Colloquium, San Francisco, Calif. (September 2009).
    • Presenter, "The Psychology of Forced Confessions," Indiana Public Defender Council "Fundamentals for Criminal Defense Lawyers," Indianapolis, Ind. (August 2009).
    • Presenter, "Litigating False Confession Cases," Indiana Public Defender Council "Fundamentals for Criminal Defense Lawyers," Indianapolis, Ind. (August 2009).
    • Presenter, "Interrogation, Coercion and False Confessions: Understanding and Identifying the Issues," The National Association of Criminal Defense Attorneys Conference, Santa Fe, N.M. (April 2009).
    • Presenter, "False Confessions: Challenging Police-Induced Testimonial Evidence," Illinois Institute for Continuing Legal Education Death Penalty Conference, Chicago, Ill. (March 2009).
    • Presenter, "Interrogation, Coercion, and False Confessions: Understanding and Identifying the Issues," Contra Costa County Public Defender's Office, Martinez, Calif. (March 2009).
    • Presenter, "False Confessions: Challenging Police-Induced Testimonial Evidence," San Francisco Public Defender's Office, San Francisco, Calif. (February 2009).
    • Presenter, "False Confessions: Challenging Police-Induced Testimonial Evidence," The Annual Death Penalty Seminar, Monterey, Calif. (February 2009). (The event was co-sponsored by the California Attorneys for Criminal Justice and the California Public Defenders Association.)
    • Presenter, "False Confessions: Causes, Consequences, and Reforms," Texas Court of Criminal Appeals, Criminal Justice Integrity Unit, Austin, Texas (January 2009).
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation, Psychological Coercion, and False Confessions," California Defense Investigators Association Conference, San Jose, Calif. (November 2008).
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation and American Justice: Author Meets Critics," American Society of Criminology Conference, St. Louis, Mo. (November 2008).
    • Presenter, "The Psychology of False Confessions: Causes, Consequences, and Reforms," University of Illinois Institute for Legal and Policy Studies and Downstate Illinois Innocence Project, Springfield, Ill. (November 2008).
    • Presenter, "The Wrong Guys: Murder, False Confessions, and the Norfolk Four," George Mason University Center for Justice, Law, and Society, Fairfax, Va. (November 2008).
    • Presenter, "The Wrong Guys: Murder, False Confessions, and the Norfolk Four," Northwestern University School of Law, Chicago, Ill. (November 2008).
    • Presenter, "The Wrong Guys: Murder, False Confessions, and the Norfolk Four," University of San Francisco School of Law, (November 2008).
    • Presenter, "False Confessions: Causes, Consequences, and Implications," American Academy of Psychiatry and Law Conference, Seattle, Wash. (October 2008). (Leo delivered the keynote address.)
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation and American Justice," New York University School of Law Hoffinger Criminal Justice Colloquium, New York, N.Y. (September 2008).
    • Presenter, "How Lawyers Should Litigate False and Unreliable Confession Cases," Golden Gate University School of Law Wrongful Conviction Seminar, San Francisco, Calif. (September 2008).
    • Presenter, "False Confessions and Wrongful Convictions," Alaska Investigators Association and Alaska Innocence Project Conference, Anchorage, Ala. (September 2008).
    • Presenter, "False Confessions and Wrongful Convictions," Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law Wrongful Conviction Seminar, New York, N.Y. (September 2008). (Attended by faculty and staff from the Innocence Project, as well as Cardozo law faculty.)
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation and False Confessions," Alaska Investigators Association and Alaska Innocence Project Conference, Anchorage, Ala. (September 2008).
    • Presenter, "The Gatehouses and the Mansions: 50 Years Later," University of San Francisco School of Law Faculty Brown Bag Series, (July 2008).
    • Presenter, "False Confessions, Wrongful Convictions, and Legal Reform," Association of American Law Schools Mid-year Meeting, Evidence Section, Cleveland, Ohio (June 2008).
    • Presenter, "False Confessions," Habeas Corpus Resource Center Conference, San Francisco, Calif. (June 2008).
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation, False Statements, and Confessions," Habeas Corpus Resource Center Conference, San Francisco, Calif. (June 2008).
    • Presenter, "False Confessions," New York University's Information Law Institute and the Department of Culture and Communication, Colloquium on Information Technology and Society Series, New York, N.Y. (April 2008).
    • Presenter, "False Confessions," National Association of Criminal Defense Attorneys Conference, Las Vegas, Nev. (April 2008).
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation and American Justice," San Francisco State University Criminal Justice Department, San Francisco, Calif. (April 2008).
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation and American Justice," University of San Francisco School of Law, (April 2008).
    • Workshop leader, "Litigating False Confession Cases," 2008 Innocence Network Conference at Santa Clara Law, Santa Clara, Calif. (March 2008).
    • Presenter, "Recommending False Confession for the Innocent," American Psychology Law Society Conference, Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. (March 2008).
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation and Coercion in Domestic American History," University of Chicago School of Law Conference on Torture, Law, and War, Chicago, Ill. (March 2008).
    • Presenter, "Persuaded False Confessions," University of Chicago School of Law Criminal Law Faculty Colloquia, Chicago, Ill. (February 2008).
    • Presenter, "Understanding False Confessions," California Attorneys For Criminal Justice and California Public Defenders Association Case Defense Seminar Program, Monterey, Calif. (February 2008).
    • Presenter, "Understanding False Confessions," California Public Defenders Association Conference, Yosemite, Calif. (November 2007).
    • Presenter, "Effects of Interrogation Tactics on Recommendation of False Confessions for the Innocent," University of Texas "Interrogation and Confessions: A Conference Exploring Current Research, Practice, and Policy," El Paso, Texas (September 2007). (Co-presented with Deborah Davis and William Follette.)
    • Presenter, "Persuaded False Confessions," University of Texas "Interrogation and Confessions: A Conference Exploring Current Research, Practice, and Policy," El Paso, Texas (September 2007). (Co-presented with Deborah Davis and William Follette.)
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation, Psychological Coercion, False Confessions," Florida Public Defender Association Conference, Orlando, Fla. (September 2007).
    • Presenter, "Effects of Failed Polygraph Results on Perceived Wisdom of True and False Confessions," American Psychological Association Conference, San Francisco, Calif. (August 2007). (Co-presented with Deborah Davis.)
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation, Psychological Coercion, False Confessions," District of Columbia Public Defender Service, Washington, D.C. (June 2007).
    • Presenter, "Understanding the Reid Method and How It Coerces Confessions," Habeas Corpus Resource Center Conference, San Francisco, Calif. (June 2007).
    • Presenter, "Wrongful Convictions and False Confessions," Tel Aviv University School of Law Conference on New Directions in Courtroom Research, Tel Aviv, Israel (May 2007).
    • Presenter, "False Confessions: Causes, Consequences, Solutions," Ohio Innocence Project, University of Cincinnati School of Law, Cincinnati, Ohio (March 2007).
    • Presenter, "False Confessions and the Wrongful Conviction of the Innocent," National Innocence Network Conference, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, Mass. (March 2007).
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation, Psychological Coercion, False Confessions," National Legal Aid and Defender Association Annual Conference on Indigent Defense, Dallas, TX. (March 2007).
    • Presenter, "Wrongful Conviction: Legal and Judicial Perspectives," Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Conference, Seattle, Wash. (March 2007).
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation, Psychological Coercion, False Confessions," Santa Clara County Public Defender's Office, San Jose, Calif. (February 2007).
    • Presenter, "The Social Psychology and Consequences of Police-Induced False Confessions," Northern California Innocence Project, Santa Clara, Calif. (February 2007).
    • Presenter, "Understanding the Reid Method and How It Coerces Confessions," California Attorneys for Criminal Justice and California Public Defenders Association Case Capital Defense Seminar Program, Monterey, Calif. (February 2007).
    • Presenter, "Why Do Suspects Falsely Confess?" Administrative Offices of the United States Courts Conference on Forensic Evidence and the Criminal Law, New Orleans, La. (January 2007).
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation, False Confession, and American Justice," University of Oklahoma Department of Psychology Faculty Colloquium, Norman, Okla. (December 2006).
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation, Psychological Coercion, False Confessions," Missouri State Public Defender System Conference, St. Louis, Mo. (December 2006).
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation and American Justice," University of San Francisco School of Law Faculty Colloquium, (November 2006).
    • Presenter, "Coerced and False Confessions," National Child Abuse Defense and Resource Center Conference, Las Vegas, Nev. (September 2006).
    • Presenter, "Interrogating Guantanamo Detainees," University of San Francisco School of Law, (October 2006).
    • Presenter, "The Limits of Miranda," University of Colorado School of Law Conference on the 40th Anniversary of Miranda v. Arizona, Boulder, Colo. (October 2006).
    • Presenter, "False Confessions: Causes, Consequences, and Solutions," California Commission on the Fair Administration of Justice, Los Angeles, Calif. (June 2006).
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation and Confessions," San Mateo Private Defender Program, Burlingame, Calif. (May 2006).
    • Presenter, "Sympathetic Detectives with Time Limited Offers: Effects on Perceived Consequences of Confession," Association for Psychological Science Conference, New York, N.Y. (May 2006). (Co-presented with David Bailey, Deborah Davis, and Deborah Knaack.)
    • Presenter, "Incriminating Ourselves?" UC Los Angeles School of Law Conference on the Faces of Wrongful Conviction: "Examining California Justice Gone Wrong," Los Angeles, Calif. (April 2006).
    • Presenter, "Miranda's Past, Present, and Future," Harvard Law School Conference on Criminal Procedure Stories, Cambridge, Mass. (April 2006).
    • Presenter, "Evaluating Evidence Ploys: The Role of Ploy Type in Perceptions of Deception and Coercion," American Psychology-Law Society Conference, St. Petersburgh, Fla. (March 2006). (Co-presented with Jennifer Bienhoff, Krista Forrest, and Brad Stastny.)
    • Presenter, "Evaluating Law Enforcement Evidence Ploys When Confessions are False: Mock Juror Perceptions of Deception and Coercion," American Psychology-Law Society Conference, St. Petersburgh, Fla. (March 2006). (Co-presented with Jennifer Bienhoff, Krista Forrest, and Brad Stastny.)
    • Presenter, "Police Interviewing and Interrogation: Toward a National Self-Report Survey of Police Practices and Beliefs," American Psychology-Law Society Conference, St. Petersburgh, Fla. (March 2006). (Co-presented with L.H. Colwell, Saul Kassin, Dana La Fon, Amy Leach, Christian Meissner, and Kimberly Richman.)
    • Presenter, "Police Interrogation and False Confessions: Best Practice Guidelines," Wisconsin Criminal Justice Study Commission, Milwaukee, Wis. (February 2006).
    • Presenter, "Bringing Reliability Back In: False Confessions and Legal Safeguards in the Twenty-First Century," University of San Francisco School of Law Faculty Colloquium, (January 2006).
    Testimony and Hearings
    • Leo has testified for the defense and prosecution as an expert witness in more than 180 cases at pre-trial suppressions hearings, jury and bench trials, and post-conviction proceedings in state, federal, and military courts in 26 states (2000 to present).
    • Testimony, California Commission on the Fair Administration of Justice (2006).
    • Testimony, Wisconsin Criminal Justice Study Commission (2006).
    • Testimony, The Illinois House of Representatives (1999).
    Written Testimony and Commentary
      Advisor or Consultant
      • Leo has served as a litigation consultant in more than 1,000 criminal and civil trials. He has worked on high profile cases involving disputed interrogations and/or confessions, including the cases of Michael Crowe, Earl Washington, the Norfolk Four, and two of the Central Park jogger defendants, as well as numerous lesser-known cases with victims of coercive interrogation that received no media attention (2000 to present).
      • Consultant, Maryland Innocence Project (2008 to 2010).
      • Consultant, Fredrikson and Byron, P.A., Minneapolis (2009 to 2010).
      Counsel
        Symposia Organization
          Professional Membership
          • Member, American Law Institute
          • Member, Association of American Law Schools
          • Member, Academic Education and Action Research Advisory Committee to the Chief of Police, Long Beach Police Department
          • Member, Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
          • Member, American Society of Criminology
          • Member, American Psychological Association
          • Member, American Psychology-Law Society
          • Member, Association for Psychological Science
          • Member, The American Sociological Association
          • Member, Law and Society Association
          • Member, National Center for Reason and Justice Scientific Advisory Board
          • Member, Pacific Sociological Association
          • Member, Society for the Study of Social Problems
          • Affliate, UC Santa Barbara Institute of Social, Behavioral, and Economic Research Center on Police Practices and Community
          Fellowships
          • Fellowship, Center for the Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (2014-2015). Stanford University.
          • Fellow, The Center for the Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University
          • Fellow, UC Berkeley Institute of Legal Reseach Criminal Justice Program
          Other Service