by John H. Elliott, University of San Francisco

I. ISRAEL, Second Temple Period
II. Antisemitism; Anti-Judaism

I. ISRAEL, Second Temple Period


Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Dead Sea Scrolls. The Princeton Theological Seminary Dead Sea Scrolls Project. Tübingen: Mohr (Siebeck)/Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1994

Vol. 1. Rule of the Community and Related Documents. Ed. J. H. Charlesworth, 1994.
Vol. 2. Damascus Document, War Scroll, and Related Documents, 1995?

Charlesworth, James H. et al. Graphic Concordance to the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Princeton Theological Seminary Dead Sea Scrolls Project. Tübingen: Mohr (Siebeck)/Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1991.

Cross, F. The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Biblical Studies. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980.

García Martínez. F. The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated. The Qumran Texts in English. Trans. from the Spanish translation by W.G.E. Watson. 2d rev. ed. Leiden: Brill; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996 (1994).

Gaster, Theordor H., transl. The Dead Sea Scrolls in English. New York: Doubleday, 1956.
Vermes, Geza. The Dead Sea Scrolls in English. 3d ed. New York: Penguin, 1987; 4th ed., 1997.
Wacholder, B.Z.; Abegg, M.G., eds. A Preliminary Edition of the Unpublished Dead Sea Scrolls. the Hebrew and Aramaic Texts from Cave Four. Fascicle Two.. Washington: Biblical Archaeological Society, 1992. Fascicle 3, 1995. Fascicle 4 and Concordance of Fascicles 1-3., 1996.
Wise, Michael; Martin Abegg Jr., and Edward Cook. The Dead Sea Scrolls. A New Translation. San Francisco: Harer, 1996.

Allegro, John. The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Origins of Christianity. New York: Criterion, 1956.
Allegro, John. The People of the Dead Sea Scrolls in Text and Pictures. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1958.
Baigent, Michael and Leigh, Richard. The Dead Sea Scrolls Deception. New York: Summit, 1991.
Black, Matthew. The Scrolls and Christian Origins. Studies in the Jewish Background of the New Testament. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1961; reprinted
Burrows, Millar. The Dead Sea Scrolls. New York: Viking, 1955.
Carmingnac, Jean. Christand the Teacher of Righteousness. The Evidence of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Baltimore: Helicon, 1962.
Charlesworth, James F., ed. Jesus and The Dead Sea Scrolls. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
Charlesworth, James F., ed. John and the Dead Sea Scrolls. New York: Crossroad, 1990.
Cross, Frank Moore. The Ancient Library of Qumran. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995.
Davies, Philip R. Behind the Essenes: History and Ideology in the Dead Sea Scrolls. Atlanata: Scholars Press, 1987.
DeVaux, Roland. Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1973.
Dimant, D. and Rappaport, U., eds. The Dead Sea Scrolls: Forty Years of Research. Jerusalem: Hebrew University Press, 1992.
Dupont Sommer, A. The Essene Writings from Qumran. New York: World Publ. Co., 1962.
Eisenman, Robert. Maccabees, Zadokites, Christians and Qumran. A New Hyptothesis of Qumran Origins. Leiden: Brill, 1983.
Gärtner, Bertil. The Temple and the Community in Qumran and the New Testament. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1965.
Ginsburg, Christian. The Essenes. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1968.
Goodman, Martin D. The Essenes according to the Classical Sources. Oxford: Oxford Centre Textbooks, 1989.
Knibb, Michael A. The Qumran Community. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1987.
Leaney, A. R. C. The Rule of Qumran and Its Meaning. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1966.
Martinez, Florentino Garcia and Barrera, Julio Trebolle. The People of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Their Writings, Beliefs,and Practices. Leiden: Brill, 1995.
Milik, J. T. Ten Years of Discovery in the Wilderness of Judaea. Naperville, IL: Alec R. Allenson, 1959.
Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome. "The Judean Desert." In Kraft, R. and Nicklesburg, G., eds. Early Judaism and Its Modern Interpreters. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1986. Pp. 119-56. [excellent survey of history of Qumran research].
Ringren, Helmer. The Faith of Qumran. Theology of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Expanded edition. New York: Crossroad, 1995.
Ulrich, Eugene and VerderKam, James. The Community of the Renewed Covenant. The Notre Dame Symposium on the Dead Sea Scrolls. Notre Dame: Univ. of Notre Dame, 1994.
Vanderkam, James C. "The People of the Dead Sea Scrolls: Essenes or Sadducees?" Bible Review April (1991):
Wilson, Edmund. The Dead Sea Scrolls 1947-69. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1969.


Aharoni-Aviyonah, The Macmillan Bible Atlas, 1968. Maps 183 (3-1 C. BCE), 238, 239 (1 C CE) 263, 264.
Applebaum Shimon. "Judaism. Jews in North Africa." ABD 3 (1992): 10572-73.
Applebaum, S. "The Organization of the Jewish Communities in the Diaspora." In The Jewish People in the First Century. CRINT, Section One. 2 vols. Ed. S. Safrai and M. Stern. Vol. 1. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1974. Pp. 464-503.
Applebaum, S. "The Legal Status of the Jewish Communities in the Diaspora." In The Jewish People in the First Century. CRINT, Section One. 2 vols. Ed. S. Safrai and M. Stern. Vol. 1. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1974. Pp. 420-63.
Applebaum, S. "The Social and Economic Status of the Jews in the Diaspora." In The Jewish People in the First Century. CRINT, Section One. 2 vols. Ed. S. Safrai and M. Stern. Vol. 2. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1974. Pp. 701-27.
Avi-Yonah, M. The Jews of Palestine. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1976.
Avi-Yonah, M. "Ancient Synagogues." Ariel 32 (1973) 29-43, reprinted in Gutmann, The Synagogue.
Avi-Yonah, M. "Archaeological Sources," in Compendia 46-62.
Avi-Yonah, M. "Synagogue: Architecture," EJ 15. 595-600.
Bacher, W. Die Agada der Tannaiten. I. Von Hillel bis Akiba; II. Von Akiba's Tod bis zum Abschluss der Mischna. 1890. 2d ed. 1903; reprinted 1966.
Bacher, W. Die exegetische Terminolgoie der jüdischen Traditionsliteratur I-II. 1899; 1905, reprinted 1965.
Bamberger, Bernard. Proselytism. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press, 1939.
Barclay, John M. G. Jews in the Mediterranean Diaspora: From Alexander to Trajan (323 BCE-117 CE). Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1996.
Beer, Moshe. "Judaism. Babylonian Judaism." ABD 3 (1992): 1076-83.
Ben-Sasson. H. H. et al. A History of the Jewish People. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976.
Bergmeier, Roland. Die Essener-Berichte des Flavius Josephus: Quellen-studien zu den Essenertexten im Werk des jüdischen Historiographen. Kampen, 1993.
Betz, Otto; Haacker, Klaus; and Hengel, Martin. Josephus-Studien. Untersuchung zu Josephus, dem antiken Judentum und dem Neuen Testament. Otto Michel FS. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1974.
Bibel und Kirche 53/2 (1998): 49-102. Theme: Flavius Josephus.
Bickerman, Elias J. From Ezra to the Last of the Maccabees: The Historical Foundations of Post-Biblical Judaism. New York: Schocken, 1962.
Bickerman, Elias J. The Jews in the Greek Age. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988.
Bilde, Per. Flavius Josephus between Rome and Jerusalem: His Life, his Works, and their Importance. Sheffield, 1988.
Blanchetière, F. "Juifs et non juifs. Essai sur la diaspora en Asie-Mineure." RHPR 54 (1974): 367-82.
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Boccaccini, Gabriele. Middle Judaism. Jewish Thought, 300 B.C.E. to 200 C.E. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991.
Boccaccini, Gabriele. Portraits of Middle Judaism in Scholarship and Arts. a Multimedia Catalog from Flavius Josephus to 1991. Torino: Silvio Zamporani, 1993/94.Boccaccini, Gabriele. "Multiple Judaisms." Bible Review 11 (1995): 38-41.
Borgen, Peder. "Judaism. Judaism in Egypt." ABD 3 (1992): 1061-72.
Borgen, Peder. Early Christianity and Hellenistic Judaism. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1996.
Botermann, Helga. "Die Synagoge von Sardes: Eine Synagoge aus dem 4. Jarhhundert." ZNW 81 (1990): 103-21.
Bourguin, D. R. First Century Palestinian Judaism: A Bibliography of Works in English. Studies in Judaica and the Holocaust, 6. Borgo. 1990
Bousset, Wilhelm. Jüdisch-Christlicher Schulbetrieb in Alexandria und Rom. Literarische Untersuchungen zu Philo, und Clemens von Alexandrien, Justin und Irenäus. FRLANT 23. Göttingen" Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1915.
Boyarin, Daniel. Carnal Israel: Reading Sex in Talmudic Culture. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1993.
Brooten, Bernadette J. Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue: Inscriptional Evidence and Background Issues. Brown Judaic Studies 36. Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1982.
Brown, Peter. The World of Late Antiquity: From Marcus Aurelius to Mohammed. London, 1971.
Bruce, F. F. "The Romans Through Jewish Eyes." In Paganisme, Judaisme, Christianisme. Mélanges offerts à Marcel Simon. Ed. A. Benoit, M. Philonenko, and C. Vagel. Paris. 1978. Pp 3-12.
Büchler, ADolf. Types of Jewish-Palestinian Piety from 70 B.C.E. to 70 C.E.: The Ancient Pious Men. New York: KTAV, 1968 (reprint of 1922).
Cantor, Norman F. The Sacred Chain. The History of the Jews. New York: HarperCollins, 1995.
Chilton, Bruce. "Jews in the NT." ABD 3 (1992): 845-48.
Clements, R., ed. The World of Ancient Israel: Sociological, Anthroplogical, and Political Perspectives. Cambriege: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Cohen, N. "Rabbi Meir, A Descendent of Anatolian Proselytes." JJS 23 (1972): 51-59.
Cohen, N. "Jewish Names as Cultural Indicators in Antiquity." JSJ 7 (1976): 97-128.
Cohen, N. G. Jewish Names and their Significance in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods in Asia Minor. 2 vols. Doctoral Dissertation, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (in Hebrew with English summary).
Cohen, S. Josephus in Galilee and Rome: His Vita and Development as a Historian. Leiden: Brill, 1979.
Cohen, Shaye J. D. "Crossing the Boundary and Becoming a Jew." HTR 82/1 (1989): 13-33.
Cohen, Shaye J. D. From the Maccabees to the Mishnah. Library of Early Christinaitty, 7. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1987.
Collins, John J. Between Athens and Jerusalem: Jewish Identity in the Hellensitic Diaspora. New York: Crossroad, 1983.
Collins, John J. The Scepter and the Star: The Messiahs of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Other Ancient Literature. New York: Doubleday, 1995.
Connolly, Peter. The Jews in the Time of Jesus: A History. 2d ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994 (1983).
Cornfeld, G., Mazor, B., Maier, P. L., eds. Josephus, The Jewish War. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1982.
Crawford, John S. "Multiculturalism at Sardis." BAR 22/5 (1996): 38-47, 70 (with recent bibliog. and evidence of Jews and Christians living and working together)
Danby, Herbert. The Mishnah. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1933.
Davies, W. E. Introduction to Pharisaism. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1967.
de Jonge, Marinus. "Messiah." Anchor Bible Dictionary 4 (1992): 777-88.
DeVaux, Roland. Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1961.
Dunn, J. D. G. "Judaism in the Land of Israel in the First Century." In Judaism in Late Antiquity. Part Two: Historical Syntheses. Ed. J. Neusner. Leiden: Brill, 1995. Pp. 229-61; pp 232-36 for a summary of earliest terms for Judaism.
Edersheim, A. The Temple. Its Ministry and Services. rev. ed. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1994.
Eisenmann, Robert H. and Wise, Michael. The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered. Rockport, MA: Element Inc., 1992.
Encyclopaedia Judaica. New York: Macmillan; Jerusalem: Keter, 1971.
Feldman, Louis H. "Flavius Josephus Revisited: The Man, His Writings, and His Significance." ANRW 2.21.2 (1984): 763-862.
Feldman, Louis H. "Josephus' Portrait of David." HUCA 60 (1989): 129-74.
Feldman, Louis H. "Josephus' Portrait of Jacob." JQR 79 (1988-89): 101-51.
Feldman, Louis H. "Josephus' Portrait of Joshua," HTR 82 (1989): 351-76.
Feldman, Louis H. "Josephus' Portrait of Moses." Jewish Quarterly Review 82 (1991-92):285-328; reprinted in Jew and Gentile in the Ancient World. Attitudes and Interactions from Alexander to Justinian. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. Pp. 243-84.
Feldman, Louis H. "Josephus' Portrait of Moses." Old Testament Essays 6 (1993): 399-426.
Feldman, Louis H. "Josephus' Portrait of Noah and Its Parallels in Philo, Pseudo-Philo"s Biblical Antiquities, and Rabbinic Midrashim." PAAJR (Proceedigs of the American Academy for Jewish Research) 55 (1988): 31-57.
Feldman, Louis H. "Josephus' Portrait of Samuel." abr-Nahrain 30 (1992): 1-29.
Feldman, Louis H. "Josephus' Portrait of Saul." HUCA 53 (1982): 45-99.
Feldman, Louis H. Jew and Gentile in the Ancient World: Attitudes and Interactions from Alexander to Justinian. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. On strength of Judaism in the Diaspora, pp. 45-83 (Asia Minor, 69-74); governmental Anti-Jewish bigotry (84-106); popular prejudice against Jews (107-22); intellelctual prejudice (123-76); attractions of Jews (177-287); Jewish success at proselytism (288-341) and a winning "Sympathizers" (342-82); proselytism in III-V cents. (383-4-15); conclusion. (collection of essays)
Feldman, Louis H. Josephus and Modern Scholarship (1937-1980). Berlin, 1984.
Feldman, Louis H. and Hata, Gohei, eds. Josephus, Judaism, and Christianity. Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press, 1987.
Fiensy, David. The Social History of Palestine in the Herodian Period. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1991.
Finkelstein, Louis. The Pharisees. The Sociological Background of Their Faith. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1938.
Fitzmyer, Joseph A. Response to 101 Questions on the Dead Sea Scrolls. New York: Paulist, 1992.
Flavius Josephus. De Bello Judaico--Der Jüdische Krieg. Griechisch und Deutsch. 3 vols. Ed. Otto Michel d Oto Bauernfiend . WBG I Band 1982, 4. ed.; II,1 Band 1963; II,2 Band 1969. [best German trans.]
Fraade, Steven D. "Judaism. Palestinian Judaism." ABD 3 (1992): 1054-61.
Frey, Jean-Baptiste. Corpus Inscriptionum Iudaicarum. 2 vols. Romne: Pontificio Istituto di Archeologia Cristiana, 1936.
Freyne, Sean. "Urban-Rural Relations in First-Century Galilee: Some Suggestions from the Literary Sources." Galilee in Late Antiquity. Ed. L. Levine. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992. Pp. 75-91.
Freyne, Sean. Galilee from Alexander the Great to Hadrian: 323 B.C.E. to 13 C.E. A Study of Second Temple Judaism. Wilmington: Michael Glazier, 1980.
Freyne, Sean. The World of the New Testament. New Testament Message 2. Wilmington: Michael Glazier, 1980.
Fritz, Volkmar and Davies, Philip R., eds. The Origins of the Ancient Israelite States. JSOT Suppl. series, 228. Sheffield:Sheffield Academic, 1996.
Frymer-Kensky, T. "Pollution, Purification, and Purgation in Biblical Israel." In The Word Shall Go Forth. ed. C. Meyer and M. O'Connor. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1983. Pp. 399-414.
Gager, John G. "Judaism as Seen by Outsiders." In In Kraft, R. and Nicklesburg, G., eds. Early Judaism and Its Modern Interpreters. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1986. Pp. 99-116 [with bibliog. on anti-Semitism]
Gager, John G. Moses in Greco-Roman Paganism. Nashville: Abingdon, 1972.
Galanté, A. Histoire des juifs d'Anatolie. 2 vols. Instanbul: M. Babok, 1937, 1939.
Gerber, Christine. Ein Bild des Judentums für Nichtjuden von Flavius Josephus. Untersuchungen zu seiner Schrift "Contra Apionem." AGAJU 40. Leiden: Brill, 1997.
Gerstenberger. Erhard S. Yahweh the Patriarch: Ancient Images of God and Feminist Theology. F. J. Gaiser, trans. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996 (1988).
Ginsberg, Louis. The Legends of the Jews. 7 vols. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1909-38.
Ginsburg, Christian D. The Essenes: Their History and Doctrines. London/New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974.
Goldstein, Albert. "Conversion to Judaism in Bible Times." Conversion to Judaism: A History and Analysis. Ed. D. M. Eichhorn. New York: KTAV Publishing House, 1965. Pp. 9-32.
Goodenough, Erwin P. By Light, Light: The Mystic Gospel of Hellenistic Judaism. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1935.
Goodenough, Erwin P. Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period. 13 vols. New York: Bollingen, 1952-1965; Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1953-68.
Goodman, Martin. "Jewish Proselytizing in the First Century." In The Jews Among Pagans and Christians in the Roman Empire. Ed. Judith Lieu, John North, Tessa Rajak. New York/London: Routledge, 1992. Pp. 53-78. [no missionizing or proselytizing in first cent. Judaism]
Goodman, Martin. Mission and Conversion. Proselytizing in the Religious History of the Roman Empire. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.
Goodman, Martin. The Ruling Class of Judaea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Goppelt, Leonhard. Apostolic and Post-Apostolic Times. 1970. re. xnty in AM, 127-31.
Goppelt, Leonhard. Christentum und Judentum im ersten und zweiten Jahrhundert. Ein Aufriss der Urgeschichte der Kirche. BFChT 2. Reihe, Band 55. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann, 1954. Pp. 245-67 (bib. 245)
Grabbe, Lester L. "Orthodoxy in First Century Judaism: What are the Issues? Journal for the Study of Judaism 33 (1982) 445-64.
Grabbe, Lester L. An Introduction to First-Century Judaism: Jewish Religion and History in the Second Temple Period. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1996.
Grabbe, Lester L. Judaism from Cyrus to Hadrian. Vol. One: The Persian and Greek Periods; Vol. Two: The Roman Period. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1992.
Graetz, H. History of the News. 3 vols. and index. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1898.
Greenstone, Julius H. The Messiah Idea in Jewish History. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Scoeity of America, 1906.
Hachlili, Rachel. Ancient Jewish Art and Archeology in the Diaspora. Handbook of Oriental Studies. 1. Abteilung.Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten.Vol. 35. Leiden: Brill, 1998. [good photos, incl. synagogues at Dura Europus and Ostia (Ostia: Plates II-8, 9, 10, 24; VII-3, 8; VII-8; IX-1 [= Ostia inscription 8978];
Hadas-Lebel, Mireille. Histoire de la langue hébraïque: Des origines à l'époque de la Mishna. Collection de la Revue des Etudes juives 21. Paris/Louvanin: Peeters, 1995.
Hadas-Lebel, Mireille. "L'Image de Rom dans la littéerature juive d'épocque hellénistique et romaine jusqu'au début du IVe siècle." PhD disseration. Univ. of Paris. Sorbonne, 1987.
Hann, R. "The Community of the Pious: The Social Setting of the Psalms of Solomon." SR 17 (1988): 169-89.
Harvey, Graham. The True Israel. Use of the Names Jew, Hebrew, and Israel in Ancient Jewish and Early Christian Literature. AGAJU 35. Leiden: Brill, 1996.
Heilmann, Samuel C. Synagogue Life. A Study in Symbolic Interaction. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1973. 2d d. 1976. (Gossip, pp. 151-92; Joking, pp. 193-209).
Heinemann, I. "The Attitude of the Ancient World Toward Judaism." Review of Religion 4 (1940): 385-400.
Hengel Martin. Judaism and Hellenism: Studies in Their Encounter in Palestine during the Early Hellenistic Period. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1974.
Hengel, M. "Die Synagogeninschrift von Stobi." ZNW 57 (1966): 145-83. Reprinted in Gutmann, The Synagogue.
Hengel, M. "Proseuche und Synagog: Jüdische Gemeinde, Gotteshaus und Gottesdienst in der Diaspora und in Palaestina." In Tradition und Glaube. K. G. Kuhn FS. Ed. G. Jeremias et al. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1971. Pp. 157-183. Reprinted in Gutmann, The Synagogue.
Herford, Robert T. Talmud and Apocrypha: A Comparative Study of Jewish Ethical Teaching in the Rabbinical Canon. KTAV, 1933.
Herford, Travers R. The Pharisees. Beacon Press, 1952.
Hertzberg, Arthur. The French Englightenment and the Jews: The Origins of Modern Anti-Semitism. New York: Schocken, 1968.
Heschel, Arbram Joshua. Moral Grandeur and Spiritual Audacity. Ed. Susannah Heschel. New York: Farrer, Straus, Giroux, 1996.
Himmelfarb, M. "`A Kingdom of Priests'; The Democratization of the Priesthood in the Literature of Second Temple Judaism." Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy (Amsterdam) 6/1 (1997): 89-104. [examines Jubiless and Rev as a strand of 2d Temple Judaism reflecting not a revolt against priestly hegemony but rather a desire to appropriate the status of preists for non-priests.
Hoehner, H.W. Herod Antipas (STNS Mon. Series 17). Cambridge Univ. Press, 1972.
Hommel, H. "Juden und Christen in kaiserzeitlischen Milet. Überlegungen zur Theaterinschrift." IM 25 (1975): 167-95.
Horsley, Richard A. "Messianic Movements in Judaism." Anchor Bible Dictionary 4 (1992): 791-97.
Horsley, Richard A. Archaeology, History, and Society in Galilee: The Social Context of Jesus and the Rabbis. Valley Forge, PA: Trinity Press International, 1996.
Horst, P. W. van der. "Jews and Christians at Aphrodisiasa in the light of their relations in other cities in Asia mInor." NTT 43 (1989): 106-21.
Jackson, F. J. F. and Lake, K., eds. The Beginnings of Christianity. 5 vols. GRand Rapids: Baker, 1979.
Jaffe, Martin S. Early Judaism. Upper Saddle River,N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1997.
Jeremias, Joachim. Jerusalem at the Time of Jesus An Investigation into Economic and Social Conditions During the New Testament. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1969.
"Jew." Enclyclopedia Judaica 10:21-25.
Johnson, L. T. "The New Testament's Anti-Jewish Slander and the Conventions of Ancient Polemic." JBL 108 (1989): 419-41.
Jones, A.H.M. The Herods of Judaea. 1938.
Josephus. A Complete Concordance to Flavius Josephus. Ed. Karl Heinrich Rengstorf. 4 vols. Leiden: Brill, 173-1983.
"Judaism." Enclyclopedia Judaica 10:383-97.
Juster, J. Les Juifs dans l'empire romain. 2 vols. Paris: Guenther, 1914.
Kasher, A. The Jews in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt. Tübingen: Mohr (Siebeck), 1985.
Kimmelman, R. "Birkat Ha-Minim and the Lack of Evidence for an Anti-Christian Jewish Prayer in Antiquity." In Jewish and Christian Self-Definition. Vol. 2. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1981. Pp. 226-44.
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Kittel, G. "Das kleinasiatische Judentum in der hellenistisch-- römischen Zeit." TLZ 69 (1944): 9-20.
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Kraabel, A. T. "Impact of the Discovery of the Sardis Synagoguge." Sardis from Prehistoric to Roman Times. Ed. G. M.A. Hanfmann. Cambridge, MA: 1983. Pp. 178-90.
Kraabel, A. T. "New Evidence of Samaritan Diaspora has been Found at Delos." Biblical Archeologist 47 (1984): 44-46.
Kraabel, A. T. "Paganism and Judaism: The Sardis Evidence." In Paganisme, Judaisme, Christianisme. Marcel Simon FS. Ed. A. Benoit and M. Philonenko. Paris, 1978. Pp. 13-33.
Kraabel, A. T. "Synaogoa Caeca: Systematic Distortion in Gentile Interpretations of Evidence for Judaism in the Early Christian Period." In "To See Ourselves as Others See Us." Christians, Jews, "Others" in Late Antiquity. Ed. J. Neusner and E.S. Frerichs. Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1985. Pp. 219-46.
Kraabel, A. T. "The Diaspora Synagogue." ANRW 2.19.1. 1979. Pp. 477-510.
Kraabel, A. T. "The Diaspora Synagogue: Archaeological and Epigraphic Evidence since Sukenik." In Ancient Synagogues. The State of Research. Ed. Joseph Gutmann. BJS 22; Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1981. Pp. 79-93.
Kraabel, A. T. "The Roman Synagogue: Six Disputable Assumptions." JJS 33 (1982): 445-64.
Kraabel, A. T. "Unity and Diversity Among Diaspora Synagogues." In The Synagogue in Late Antiquity. Ed. L. Levine. Philadelphia: ASOR, 1987. Pp. 49-60.
Kraabel, A. T. Judaism in Western Asia Minor under the Roman Empire, with a Preliminary Study of the Jewish Community at Sardis, Lydia. Ph.D. Dissertation. Harvard Divinity School, 1968.
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Kraemer, Ross S. On the Meaning of the Term `Jew' in Greco-Roman Inscriptions." HTR 82/1 (1989): 35-53.
Kraemer, Ross S. "Non-Literary Evidence for Jewish Women in Rome and Egypt." Helios 13 (1986): 85-101.
Kraft, R. and Nicklesburg, G., eds. Early Judaism and Its Modern Interpreters. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1986. [17 essays on various topics of various authors]
Kraft, Robert A. "Judaism on the World Scene." In The Catacombs and the Colosseum: The Roman Empire as the Setting of Primitive Christianity. Ed. Stephen Benko and John J. O'Rourke. VAlley Forge: Judson Press, 1971.
Lachs, Samuel Tobias. Rabbinic Commentary on the New Testament: The Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. KTAV, 1987.
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Leon, Harry J. The Jews of Ancient Rome. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1960; reprinted, with a new Introduction by C. A. Osiek. Peasbody, MA: Hendrickson, 1995.?
Levey, Samson, H. The Messiah: An Aramaic Internpretation. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, 1974.
Levine, Amy-Jill and Pervo, Richard L., eds. Jewish Proselytism. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1997.
Levine, L. I., ed. The Synagogue in Late Antiquity. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987.
Lieberman, Saul. Hellenism in Jewish Palestine. New YOrk: Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 1950.
Lieu, Judith; North, John; and Rajak, Tessa, eds. The Jews Among Pagans and Christian in the Roman Empire. New York: Routledge, 1992; rev. ed., 1994.
Lifshitz, Baruch. Donateurs et fondateurs dans les synagogues juives: Répertoire des dédicaces greques relatives à construction et à réflection des synagogues. Paris: Gabalda, 1967.
Linder, Amnon, ed. The Jews in Roman IMperial Legislation. Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press, 1987.
Lipman, Eugene J. The Mishnah: Oral Teachings of Judaism. New YOrk: W.W. Norton and Co., 1970.
Lowe, M. "Who were the Ioudaioi?" NovTest 18/2 (1976): 101-30.
Macobi, H. Early Rabbinic Writings. Cambridge, 1988.
Maier, J. Zwischen den Testamenten. Geschichte und Religion in der Zeit des zweiten Temples. Munich, 1990.
Maier, Johann. Die Qumran-Essener: Die Texte vom Toten Meer. 3 vols. UTB 1862, 1863, 1916. Munich, 1995-1996.
Mason, Steve. Flavius Josephus on the Pharisees: A Composition-Critical Study. Studia Post-Biblica, 39. Leiden: Brill, 1991.
Mason, Steve. Flavius Josephus on the Pharisees: A Composition-Critical Study. Leiden: Brill, 1991.
Mayer -Schärtel, Bärbel. Das Frauenbild des Josephus.Eine soziaslgeschichtliche und kulturanthroplogische Untersuchung. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1995.
McKnight, Scot. A Light Among the Nations: Jewish Missionary Activity in the Second Temple Period. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991.
McLaren, J. S. Power and Politics in Palestine. The Jews and the Governing of their Land 100 BC-AD 70. Sheffield; Sheffield Univ. Press, 1991.
Meyer, R. Zur Geschichte und Theologie des Judentums in hellenistisch-römischer Zeit. Neukirchen-Vluyn, Neukirchner, 1989.
Millar, Fergus. "The Jews of the Graceo-Roman Diaspora between paganism and Christianity, AD 312-438." In The Jews Among Pagans and Christians in the Roman Empire. Ed. Judith Lieu, John North, Tessa Rajak. New York/London: Routledge, 1992. Pp. 97-123.
Moe, D. "The Cross and the Menorah." Archaeology 30 (1977) 148- 157 (on Stobi)
Moore, George Foot. Judaism in the First Three Centuries of the Christian Era: The Age of the Tannaim. Cambridge, MA:, 1954. (monolithic, "normative Judaism"--now disproved)
Mowinkel, Sigmund. He That Cometh. New York: Abingdon, 1951.
Müller, Kalus. Tora für di Vöoker. Die noachidischen Gebote and Ansätze zu ihrer Rezeption im Christentum. Studien zu Kirche und Israel 15. Berlin: Institut Kirche und Judentum, 1994.
Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome, ed. Paul and Qumran: Studies in New Testament Exegesis. Chicago: The Priory Press, 1968.
Murray, R. "Jews, Hebrews and Christians: Some Need Distinction." NovTest 24/3 (1982: 194-208.
Myers, Eric M. and White, L. Michael. "Jews and Christians in a Roman World." Archeology 42/2 (1989): 27-33.
Neusner, Jacob and Frerichs, Ernest S., eds. "To See Ourselves as Others See Us." Christians, Jews, "Others" in Late Antiquity. Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1985.
Neusner, Jacob, ed. Judaism in Late Antiquity. Parts One and Two. Handbook of Oriental Studies 17. Part Two. Historical Syntheses. Leiden: Brill, 1995.
Neusner, Jacob, ed. Judaisms and Their Messiahs at the Turn of the Christian Era. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1987.
Neusner, Jacob, Editor in chief, and Green William S., ed. Dictionary of Judaism in the Biblical Period. 2 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1995.
Neusner, Jacob, General Editor. The Talmud of the Land of Israel. A Preliminary Translation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
Neusner, Jacob. "History and Purity in First-Century Judaism." HR 18 (1975): 15-26.
Neusner, Jacob. "Rabbinic Judaism. Its History and Hermeneutics." In Neusner, Jacob, ed. Judaism in Late Antiquity. Parts One and Two. Handbook of Oriental Studies 17. Part Two. Historical Syntheses. Leiden: Brill, 1995. Pp. 161-225. [The formative history of Judaism in its three stages, as documented in the Mishnah (philosophy, ca. 200 CE), the Talmud of the Land of Israel and related Midrash compilations (religion, ca. 400-550), and the Talmud of Babylon and its Midrash-collection (theology, ca. 500-600), involving ethos (worldview), ethics (way of life), and ethnos (people). Includes critiques of the works by G. F. Mooer, E. E. Urbch, and E. P. Sanders.]
Neusner, Jacob. "The Idea of Purity in Ancient Judaism." JAAR 43 (1975): 15-26.
Neusner, Jacob. Ancient Judaism: Debates and Disputes. Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1984.
Neusner, Jacob. Classics of Judaism. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1995.,
Neusner, Jacob. Early Rabbinic Judaism: Historical Studies in Religion, Literature, and Art. Leiden: Brill, 1975.
Neusner, Jacob. First Century Judaism in Crisis. Nashville: Abingdon, 1975.
Neusner, Jacob. From Politics to Piety. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973.
Neusner, Jacob. From Testament to Torah: An Introduction to Judaism in Its Formative Age. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1988.
Neusner, Jacob. Judaism and Scripture: The Evidence of Leviticus Rabbah. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.
Neusner, Jacob. Judaism in Society: The Evidence of the Yerushalmi. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.
Neusner, Jacob. Judaism in the Beginning of Christianity. London, 1984.
Neusner, Jacob. Judaism: The Classical Statement. The Evidence of the Bavli. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.
Neusner, Jacob. Judaism: The Evidence of the Mishnah. Chicago, 1981.
Neusner, Jacob. Judaism: The Evidence of the Mishnah. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981; 2d ed. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1987.
Neusner, Jacob. Rabbinic Judaism: An Historical Introduction. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996.
Neusner, Jacob. Rabbinic Literature and the New Testament. What We Cannot Show, We Do Not Know. Valley Forge, PA: Trinity Press International,
Neusner, Jacob. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Exile and Return in the History of Judaism. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1990.
Neusner, Jacob. Studying Classical Judaism: A Primer. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1991.
Neusner, Jacob. The Idea of Purity in Ancient Judaism. SJLA 1. Leiden: Brill, 1973.
Neusner, Jacob. The Rabbinic Traditions about the Pharisees before 70 A.D. 3 vols. Leiden: Brill, 1971.
Neusner, Jacob. What We Cannot Show, We Do Not Know. Rabbinic Literature and the New Testament. Philadelphia: Trinity International, 1994.
Neusner, Jacob. A Life of Johannan ben Zakkai. 2d ed. Leiden: Brill, 1970.
Neusner, Jacob. Introduction to Rabbinic Literature. The Anchor Bible Reference Library. New York: Doubleday, 1994. $40.00. 4-22-98.
Neusner, Jacob. Judaisms and their Messiahs at the Turn of the Christain Era. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1987.
Neusner, Jacob. The Way of Torah: An Introduction to Judaism. 5th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993. [pp. 3-24 on def. of Judaism and its historical development]
Neusner, Jacob; Scott, William; and Frerichs, Ernest S., eds. Judaisms and Their Messiahs at the Turn of the Christian Era. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1987.
Newsome, James D. Greeks, Romans, Jews. Currents of Culture and Belif in the New Testament World. Philadelphia: Trinity Press International, 1992. [Many samples of literature]
Nickelsburg, G. W. E. Jewish Literature Between the Bible and the Mishnah. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1981.
Nickelsburg, G. W. E. Resurrection, Immortality and Eternal Life in Intertestamental Judaism. HTS 26. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972.
Oppenheimer, A. The Am Ha-aretz: A Study in the Social History of the Jewish People in the Hellenistic-Roman Period. Leiden: Brill, 1977.
Overman, J. A. and MacLennan, R. S., eds. Diaspora Jews and Judaism. Essays in Honor of, and in Dialogue with, A. T. Kraabel. South Florida studies in the history of Judaism 41. University of South Florida, 1992.
Overman, J. Andrew and Green, William Scott. "Judaism. Judaism in the Greco-Roman Period." ABD 3 (1992): 1037-54.
Parente, Fausto and Sievers, Joseph, eds. Josephus and the History of the Greco-Roman Period. M.Smith FS. Studia Post Biblica 41. Leiden: Brill, 1994.
Patai, Raphael. The Messiah Texts. Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press, 1979.
Penna, Romano. "Judaism. Judaism in Rome." ABD 3 (1992): 1073-76.
Petuchowski, J.J. "Es lehrten unsere Meister..." Rabbinische Geschichten aus den Quellen neu erzählt und herausgegeben. 2. Auflage. Freiburg, 1979.
Philo. Philon d''Alexandrie. Biblia Patristica. Index des citations et allusiones bibliques dans la littéreature patristique. Supplément.
Philo. Legatio ad Gaium 245; 280-81; 311-16 (re privileges from Rome; Jos. AJ 16. 162-65.
Porton, Gary O. The Stranger within Your Gates: Converts and Conversion in Rabbinic Literature. Chicago Studies in the History of Judaism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.
Rad, G. von; Kuhn, K. G.; Gutbrod, W. "Israêl etc." TDNT 3 (1965): 356-91.
Radin, Max.
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Expositer 5 (1902): 19-33; 92-109.
Reinach, Théodore.
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Reynolds, J. and Tannenbaum, R.
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Rhoads, David.
Israel in Revolution: 6-74 C.E. Philadelphia: Fortress, Press, 1976.
Richardson, Peter;Granskou, David; Wilson Stephen G., eds.
Anti-Judaism in Early Christianity. Vol.1. Paul and the Gospels, ed. Richardson and Granskou. Vol. 2. Separation and Polemic, ed. Wilson. Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press, 1986.
Ringren, Helmer.
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Rivkin, Ellis.
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Rosenbloom, Joseph.
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Safrai, S. and Stern, M., eds.
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Safrai, S. and Stern, M., eds.
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Safrai, Z.
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Saldarini, A.
Phariseees, Scribes, and Phariseees in Palestinia Soceity. Wilmington: M. E. Glazier, 1988.
Saltman, Ellen S.
The Jews of Asia Minor in the Greco-Roman Period: A Religious and Social Study. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Smith College, 1971.
Sanders, E. P.
Jewish Law from Jesus to Mishnah: Five Studies. Philaelphia: 1990.
Sanders, E. P.
Judaism: Practice and Belief, 63 BCE--66 CE. Philadelphia: 1989.

Sanders, E. P. Jewish Law from Jesus to the Mishnah. London, 1990.
Sanders, E. P.
Judaism: Practice and Belief 63 B.C.E.--66 C.E. London: SCM; Valley Forge, PA: Trinity Press International, 1992.
Sanders, E. P. et al., eds.
Jewish and Christian Self-Definition. Vol. 2. Aspects of Judaism in the Greco-Roman Period. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1981.
Saperstein, Marc, ed.
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Schäfer, P.
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Schiffman, L. H.
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Schiffman, L. H.
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Schürer, Emil.
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Seager, A. "The Architecture of the Dura and Sardis Synagogues." In Gutman,
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AJA 76 (1972) 425-435.
Seager. A. et al.
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Shanks, Hershel.
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JBL 52 (1933): 66-77.
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Numen 23 (1976) 40-66.
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Simon, Marcel.
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Solin, H. "Juden und Syrer im westlichen Teil der römischen Welt. Eine ethnisch-demographische Studie mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der sprachlichen Zustände."
ANRW 2.29.2 1983. Pp. 587-789 (and index, 1222-49).
Stemberger, G.
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Stemberger, Günther "Juden."
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Stern, Menahem.
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Stern, S.
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Zeitlin, S.
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(cf. also Bibliography. on Jewish-Christian Relations)

Abel, E. The Roots of Anti-Semitism. Rutherford, NJ: Farleigh Dickenson University Press, 1974.
Berdaiev, N.
Christianity and Anti-Semitism. Nerw York: Philosophical Library, 1954.
Bratton, F. G.
The Crime of Christendom. The Theological Sources of Anti-Semitism. Boston: Beacon Press, 1969.
Davies, Alan T., ed.
Anti-Semitism and the Christian Mind: The Crisis of Conscience after Auschwitz. New YOrk: Herder and Herder, 1969.
Flannery, E. H.
The Anguish of the Jews. 23 Centuries of Anti-Semitism. New York: Macmillan, 1965.
Gager, John G.
The Origins of Anti-Semitism. Attitudes toward Judaism in Pagan and Christian Antiquity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.
Glock, Charles Y. and Stark, Rodney.
Christian Beliefs and Anti-Semitism. New York: Harper & Row, 1966.
Grosser, P. E.
The Causes and Effects of Anti-Semitism. New York: Philosophical Library, 1978.
Heinemann, I. "Antisemitismus." Pauly-Wissowa,
RE Sup 5 (1931): 3-43.
Isaac, Jules.
The Teaching of Contempt: Christian Roots of Anti-Semitism. New York: McGraw Hill, 1965; trans. of French ed., 1962.
Kee, Howard Clark and Borowsky, Irwin J.
Removing Anti-Judaism from the Pulpit. Continuum, 1996.
Kern, Kathleen.
We Are the Pharisees. Herald Press, 1995.
Leipoldt, Johannes.
Antisemitismus in der alten Welt. 1933 (bibliog.)
Litvinoff, B.
The Burning Bush: Anti-Semitism and World History. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1988.
Long, E. J.
2,000 Years: A History of Anti-Semitism. New York: Exposition Press, 1953.
Richardson, Peter and Grankou, D., eds.
Anti-Judaism in Early Christianity. 1. Paul and the Gospels. Studies in Christianity and Judaism 2. Waterloo, 1986.
Ruether, Rosemary Radford.
Faith and Fratricide. The Theological Roots of Anti-Semitism. New York: Seabury Press, 1974.
Sandmel, Samuel.
Anti-Semitism in the New Testament? Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1978.
Schürer, E.
Jewish People. III. 150ff.
Sevenster, J. N.
The Roots of Pagan Anti-Semitism in the Ancient World. Leiden: Brill, 1975.
Wilson, Stephen G., ed.
Anti-Judaism in Early Christianity. Vol. 2. Separation and Polemic. Waterloo, Ontario, 1986.