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Volume VI Number 1, Spring 2006

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CONTENTS

Philippine Studies and the Centennial of the Diaspora: An Introduction

Joaquin L. Gonzalez III, Ph.D and Evelyn I. Rodriguez, Ph.D

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Primerang Bituin: Philippines-Mexico Relations at the Dawn of the Pacific Rim Century

Evelyn I. Rodriguez, Ph.D

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Since the end of WWII, the region of countries bordering, and various island nations within, the Pacific Ocean, has drawn much attention, and been subject to a variety of institutional arrangements intended to promote certain political, economic, and environmental interests. Because of this, the mid-twentieth century is widely held as the starting point for Pacific Rim relations, and studies of Pan-Pacific interactions almost strictly concentrate on examining or trying to forecast their political, economic, and environmental outcomes. This study, however, proposes that the earliest and longest Pacific Rim relationship was actually that between Manila, Philippines and Acapulco, Mexico, and was sustained by the Manila Galleon Trade, between 1565 and 1815. Furthermore, it argues that the most significant result of this 250 year relationship was the profound cultural exchange which occurred between the Mexico and the Philippines.

The study sketches the prevalent discourse regarding the origins and effects of Pacific Rim dealings, and then it describes the history of the Manila Galleon Trade. Finally, it highlights some of the deep ways Mexican and Filipino pre-twentieth century societies were influenced by their trade with each other, and argues that this calls for more scholarly consideration of how contemporary Pacific Rim relations can have a significant bearing on culture, as well as socioeconomic and environmental matters.


Mail-Order Brides: A Closer Look at U.S. & Philippine Relations

Marie Lorraine Mallare, J.D

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This legal commentary explores the issues of the mail order bride and sex trafficking industry. It is an attempt to look at the relationship between the United States of America and the Philippines and whether these allies have laws that protect women who are caught in the mail order bride system. It also explains the harm of stereotyping Filipinas or women of Asian descent as sex workers, and the need to protect women from possible abuse by their white male perpetrators. Lastly, the article provides analysis of the laws that are currently in place and whether these laws are effective or outdated.


Apathy to Activism through Filipino American Churches

Claudine del Rosario, M.A. and Joaquin L. Gonzalez III, Ph.D

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This study provides some answers to the question: given that accumulation and accounting of social, cultural, economic, and political capitals exists and is performed, has this critical mass translated to societal empowerment for Filipino migrants? Del Rosario and Gonzalez acknowledge that Catholic and Protestant churches have been utilized as an effective hegemonic ally by colonizing states, like Spain and the United States, to pursue their political and economic self interests within their colonies. But due to reverse colonization, del Rosario and Gonzalez argue that the Filipinized churches in San Francisco have become modern day counter-hegemonic spaces and structures where advocacy and activism tactics are learned and immigrant rights are discussed. These counter-hegemonic actions are then directed at US laws that displace, repress, and discriminate against new immigrants.


The Quest for Power: The Military in Philippine Politics, 1965-2002

Erwin S. Fernandez, M.A

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This article traces the involvement of the military or the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) in Philippine politics beginning 1965 during the presidency of Marcos until 2002, a year before the Oakwood Mutiny happened when a group of soldiers tried to overthrow the present Arroyo administration. It provides a brief overview on its history before 1965 from its colonial beginnings during the American regime until the Macapagal administration. During the time of Marcos, the involvement of the military was a crucial factor in the making of a dictatorship. After the overthrow of Marcos in 1986, a politicized section of the military staged eight coups to topple Aquino's government. Ramos, a military man and Aquino's own choice won the election and successfully negotiated for peace with the rebels. In the short-lived Estrada administration, the military was the critical element of its downfall in 2001 that led to the assumption into power of Vice-President Arroyo. Rumors of coup plots, however, were in the air only three days after Arroyo's assumption into office. This article concludes that the specter of military interventionism would always haunt Philippine body politic as long as there are no efforts to exorcise the ghosts of the past.


Corporate-Community Engagement in Upland Cebu City, Philippines

Francisco A. Magno

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This study examines the role of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities in strengthening resource management and environmental sustainability in the upland barangays (villages) of Cebu City located in the central Philippines. In this effort, Philippine Business for Social Responsibility (PBSP) partnered with companies such as the Aboitiz Group of Companies in implementing a package of interventions embodied in the Cebu Hillyland Development Program (CHDP). The Area Resource Management (ARM) strategy developed by PBSP was used to improve the organizational, socio-economic and environmental systems of communities in the target sites.


Worlds in Collision

Carlos Villa., M.F.A. and Andrew Venell, M.F.A

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This electronic website publication and link introduces "Worlds in Collision," the brainchild and passion of the presenter, and the first website devoted to Filipino American art history. It will first describe the formation of "Worlds in Collision" as an organic historical document, and the creators' intent for it to grow through use. Then it will demonstrate how the website represents a lineage of Filipino American artists and makers and their cultural achievements in painting and sculpture, graphic design, graffiti writing, turntablism, music, writing, and film. Finally, it will explain how this website can function as a historical and cultural resource, for and by all who are interested, especially because of the inclusion of a weblog and discussion forum for ongoing comment on community issues.


Poems from Diaspora

Rofel G. Brion. Ph.D

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This article is a compilation of three poems, each in Filipino and English. The Filipino versions were first printed in his book, Story. They are reprinted here with permission. "Poems from Diaspora," the English translations, which were written in San Francisco, have never been published.


Reflections on Philip Vera Cruz and the Filipino Diaspora

Joaquin L. Gonzalez III, Ph.D

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As Filipino Americans celebrate the centennial (1906-2006) of the Filipino diaspora to the United States, Gonzalez puts into critical analysis the life of eminent Filipino agricultural labor leader, Philip Vera Cruz through the contemporary economic benefits and social costs of migration. Vera Cruz stands alongside well-known farm worker activists Larry Itliong and Cesar Chavez. Gonzalez argues that just like Vera Cruz and his contemporaries, the millions of overseas Filipinos of today are the modern-day heroes and heroines of the world we live in, a world without borders but still very much a world with limited protection and social justice for them.


An Interview with Philip Vera Cruz, Spring 1971

Sid Valledor

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An interview prepared and conducted with Filipino-American agricultural labor leader Philip Vera Cruz' college speaking engagements in the Pacific Northwest in the spring of 1971. It is an edited transcription of a tape recorded personal interview on his life, held at his home in the fall of the same year. For over thirty years the tape recordings and Vera Cruz' writings remained dormant. With mixed emotions Valledor, a retired labor leader, prevailed upon himself to let the world know of what Philip Vera Cruz had to say outside the context of the Great Delano Grape Strike as he understood it. The interview essay is one part of the farm workers movement story as seen from a unique historical capacity. The writings, interviews, and recordings occurred mostly during the 1969 - 1971.


Yuchengco Media Fellowship Recipient, Spring 2007

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Asia-Pacific Social Science Review Call for Papers

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USF Centennial Conference Announcement

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